Mental Illness and Science Background In the 19th century, it was not uncommon for people to be wrongly presumed dead and then buried alive This helped influence undead characters in the literature of the time The term, taphephobia (fear of the sick being buried alive), originated during this time period. It became such a problem that graveyards developed a system that hooked a bell from the casket to above the ground – if someone was not dead, they would just ring the bell then the grave-keeper would unearth them. The term, “saved by the bell,” comes from this period. Edgar Allen Poe was also a big influence during this time. Poe thought he suffered from Catelepsy. Mid – 1800’s In the 1850’s, there was discussion of suicide in relation to sanity instead of morality. Due to the lack of knowledge of the mind at the time, mental illnesses (permanent) were missed up with mental conditions (curable). This led to a large number of people that were sent to asylums. Asylums became a place that people began to fear. The McNaughton Rules Rules established to clarify what was considered “legally insane.” These rules continued to be followed until the 1960’s. To define the law pertaining to crimes committed by persons suffering from “insane delusion.” To offer what would be the appropriate questions to put the jury in such cases. To state in what terms the questions ought to be left to the jury. To decide whether a person suffering from insane delusion should be executed. To determine whether a medical practitioner is qualified to judge such insane delusion if he has never previously seen the accused. *Judges answer these questions to determine the severity or longevity, or to determine them mentally insane. *This raises the question on whether a judge or jury has the right to determine whether or not a crime was committed in full consciousness or if a mental problem was involved. Darwin and Other Scientific Minds Darwin’s t teachings in his book, The Origin of Species, helped shape and influence people’s thoughts in the Victorian era. Nikola Tesla helped jumpstart the Industrial Revolution. His inventions also led society to question whether or not technology was good for society. These controversial issues show up in Dracula when Van Helsing uses his blood transfusions to combat Lucy’s blood loss. This refers to the struggle between nature and technology, and whether or not technology combats evil, or works to encourage it. All of these new developments caused a lot of controversy within society. Sigmund Freud was a psychoanalyst who treated people with mental conditions and analyzed the human mind. These scientists contributed to both ease and raise superstitions and myths regarding the undead. George R. Dysdale A Doctor who wrote, Elements of Social Science (1854). He hypothesized that moral transgression was a disease. He said that the spirite belongs to the brains and that all moral diseases are a result of our ignorance of natural laws.