9/24/08 Dreams Electrochemical events that involve the brainstem, areas of the cortex, and the eyes Common themes of dreams: falling, being chased, and/or repeatedly failing Influences our dreams: Concerns of your everyday life External stimuli (alarm clock ? makes like a fire alarm in dream) Yourself Lucid dreaming Wish Fulfillment (Freud) Manifest content: what you thought your dream was about (next day) Latent content: fulfilling your fear of death or desire for sex/power Underlying hidden meaning Activation-synthesis (Hobson & McCarley) Activation: random neural signals firing in the brainstem that spread up to the cortex Synthesis: the brain then creates images and stories in an effort to make sense out of these random signals Sleep Disorders Insomnia: a persistent inability to fall asleep Narcolepsy: overpowering urge to fall asleep that may occur while talking or standing up Sleep apnea: failure to breathe when asleep Children are most prone to: Night terrors (not in REM sleep) ? (also: nightmares are in REM sleep) Sleepwalking Sleeptalking Meditation Procedure that uses mental exercises to achieve a highly focused state of consciousness Effects include: Increased self esteem and sense of control Overcoming insomnia, preventing smoking Hypnosis An induced state of consciousness Highly suggestible state Can influence thinking, feeling, and behavior Franz Anton Mesmer (Austrian) ? ?Mesmerized? Animal magnetism Two Stages of Hypnosis: Induction Suggestion Hypnotic Susceptibilty -Hilgard?s Stanford Hypnotic Scale Roughly 10% highly hypnotizable Roughly 10% not at all Facts and Falsehoods Anyone can experience hypnosis to some extent Hypnosis cannot enhance recall of forgotten events Hypnosis cannot force people to act against their will Hypnosis can be therapeutic. Self suggestion can heal too Hypnosis can alleviate pain, so can Lamaze. Chemically Altered Consciousness Psychoactive drugs Induce changes in thinking, perception, and behavior by affecting neuronal activity in the brain Four categories: Depressants Stimulants Hallucinogens Opiates Terminology Tolerance: when your exposed to a drug repeatedly, how much it affects you decreases Withdrawal: undesirable effects of stopping (susation)- like craving, psyc dependence Addiction: craving for a chemical substance despite its negative consequences Depressants Reduce neural activity and slow body functions Alcohol Barbiturates Opiates Stimulants Excite neural activity and speed up body functions Caffeine Nicotine Cocaine Ecstasy Amphetamines Methamphetamines Hallucinogens (Psychedelic) distort perceptions and evoke sensory images LSD THC firstname.lastname@example.org
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