Caffeine (not really a DoA, but similar effects as it blocks the adenosine receptor)
Factoid: systemic injection of nicotine will cause dopamine to be released by the nucleus accumbens; may explain reward system.
Factoid: Tobacco products can bind to nicotine receptors and increase acetylcholine release (presynaptic nicotinics?)
Factoid: Cannabinoids change the interaction of neurons in your brain.
Drugs of abuse: name 2 psychedelics
Decrease serotonin transmission. Blur the line between the sleeping brain and awake prain.
Not intrinsically reinforcing; some invidiausl like it.
PCP and ketamine - inhibit glutamate receptors (NMDA)
Drugs of abuse: Name 3 inhalants
Nitrous oxide, Amyl nitrite, butyl nitrite (so... my nitros).
Don't know how these work.
A 'designer' drug; alters serotonin (like LSD and Mescaline) and catecholamines
Amephetamine and Cocaine's effects are mostly likely tied to which neurotransmitter?
Dopamine -- it's known that these drugs mess with the monoamine reuptake systems for DA, NE and 5-HT, but if you knock out DAT then mice are largely insensitive to these drugs.
What may contribute to the "binge" usage of cocaine?
There are autoregulators on these neurons that, as they get flooded with NE and Dopamine, decrease the excitability of the neuron so that it takes even greater concentrations of dopa/NE to fire off. --> another line of cocaine to keep the effect.
What is an additional effect that Amphetamine has on the synaptic terminal that cocaine does not have?
Amph will, besides interfering with the transporters on the terminal, also mess with the transporters that place DA into the vesicles themselves. This means DA builds up in the cytoplasm and the neuron will become "leaky" as DA leaves through diffusion. This will lend a more sustained duration of effect, sometimes over a course of several days.
What are the physiologic toxicities of amphetamine and cocaine?
Arrhythmias and convulsions for both.
To treat acute seizures from a cocaine overdose, generally administer
What would you not use to treat a PCP (phencyclidine) acute overdose (seizures)?
Not an antipsychotic. Most antipsychs have serious anticholinergic side effects and so does PCP. The synergy of side effects is why they are contraindicated. Diazepam is preferred to treat the seizures.
How can you treat the symptoms of opioid withdrawal?
Methadone @ low levels (long acting drug)
What kind of treatment do you give for sympathomimetic withdrawal symptoms?
Behavioral-- there isn't really a functional dependence on these drugs, only a psychological.
If you're been using a general depressant (ethanol, pentobarbital, diazepam), how can you best treat the withdrawal?
Withdrawal = convulsions, Delirium Tremens; Treat with low levels of phenobarbital or an alpha agonist like clonidine to reduce the sympathetic storm.
What is Varenicline?
Nicotinic partial agonist. May be used for nicotine withdrawal.
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