ART HISTORY 132 Early Renaissance: Italian Painting Masaccio (1401-1428?) Brancacci Chapel (c. 1425) function: private chapel narratives: obscure composition: registered two (2) horizontal registers extend around chapel aesthetic source(s): figures Giotto’s Arena Chapel simple grandeur psychologically & physically credible Masaccio The Tribute Money site: Brancacci Chapel placement: upper register subject: NT (Gospel of St. Matthew) narrative: “continuous” horizontally arranged represents three episodes from same narrative left St. Peter retrieves coin from fish center tax collector in foreground w/ back to viewer right St. Peter thrusts coin into tax collector’s hand perspective: one-point & aerial architectural lines recede logically diminished use of light & blurring of outlines of forms in distance color: vibrant use of primaries & secondaries light/shadow: “directed” figures: naturalistic (tradition est. by Giotto) gestures: assist narrative Masaccio’s Tribute Money (c. 1425) Masaccio Brancacci Chapel (cont.) Expulsion from Paradise subject: OT narrative: assisted by gestures composition: dynamic diagonal placement of forms sweeping movement of Angel’s drapery compliments strict verticality perspective: linear (e.g., gate) figures: solidly modeled light: “directed” Early Renaissance: Italian context: Humanism definition: revival of classical liberal arts grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history & philosophy study of ancient republican models of gov’t emphases common good as well as individual nobility conjunction of faith & reason themes: Christianity infused w/ Classical (pagan) culture aesthetic: realism Masaccio Holy Trinity (1425) composition: stable CVA & triangular format figures: hierarchically arranged God the Father Jesus (the Son) Virgin Mary/St. John Baptist donors linear perspective: square stone vaulting steps leading to niche vanishing point: implied horizon of Christ’s outstretched arms narrative: directed by gestures Virgin instructing about death of body see skeleton below Fra Angelico (1400-1455) Annunciation (c. 1450) subject: Gabriel appears to VM setting: porch enclosed garden pointed arches (Gothic) Corinthian capitals perspective: linear columns receding diagonal lines chair figures: idealized drapery: naturalistic pleats composition: stable bilateral symmetry color: pastel light: directed Castagno (1423-1457) The Last Supper (c. 1450) subject matter: NT narrative: moment following Christ’s announcement of betrayal emotions conveyed through gestures & glances Judas sits in isolation opposite Christ setting: shallow interior of refectory (dining hall) perspective: linear side walls roof floor tile figures: naturalistic (re: tradition est. by Giotto & Masaccio) lighting: “directed” by windows at right color: vibrant decorativeness: illusionistic marble textures Castagno’s The Last Supper (c. 1450) Piero della Francesca (1420-1492) Resurrection (1463) site: Palazzo Communale in Tuscany narrative tone: non-natural occurrence presented stoically figures: idealized through mathematical proportions composition: frieze-like arrangement (Classical) stable CVA implicit triangular format color: pastel compliments & localized primaries light/shadow: even distribution perspective: emphasis on aerial Perugino’s The Delivery of the Keys (c. 1475) Botticelli’s The Birth of Venus (c. 1485) Botticelli’s Italian Early Renaissance Birth of Venus (c. 1475 CE) vs. Praxitele’s Greek Late Classical Aphrodite (c. 350 BCE) Ghirlandaio (1449-1494) Giovanna Tornabuoni date: (c. 1490) commission: memorial subject: character reading of aristocracy theme: courtly manners pose: profile facial features: idealized color: vibrant decorativeness: patternization of clothing iconography: Humanism epitaph quotes ancient Roman poet Martial (Left) Ghirlandaio’s Italian Early Renaissance Giovanna Tornabuoni (c. 1475) vs. Leonardo’s High Renaissance La Bella Principessa (c. 1500) Ghirlandaio Old Man and Grandson date: 1490 subject: emotional familial bond aesthetic: realistic old man idealized child composition: dynamic color: vibrant & muted light/shadow: directed perspective: linear aerial IMAGE INDEX Slide 2: MASACCIO. View of left wall of Brancacci Chapel (1426- 27), 255 x 598 cm., Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence, Italy. Slide 4: MASACCIO. The Tribute Money, left wall of the Brancacci Chapel (1426-27), Sta. Maria del Carmine, Florence, Italy. Slide 5: MASACCIO. The Expulsion (c. 1425), left wall of the Brancacci Chapel, Sta. Maria del Carmine, Florence, Italy. Slide 7: MASACCIO. Holy Trinity (c. 1425), Fresco, 22’ x 11’, Santa Maria Novella, Florence. Slide 8: FRA ANGELICO. Annunciation (c. 1450), Monastery of San Marco, Florence, Italy. Slide 10: CASTAGNO, The Last Supper (c. 1450), Fresco, approx. 15’ x 32’, monastery of Sant’Apollonaire, Florence, Italy. Slide 11: PIERO DELLA FRANCESCA, Resurrection (1463), mural in fresco and tempera, 225 x 200 cm, Museo Civico, Sansepolcro, Italy. IMAGE INDEX Slide 12: PERUGINO, Delivery of the Keys (1481-83), Fresco, 11’5 ½” x 18’8 ½”, Sistine Chapel, Vatican, Rome. Slide 14: BOTTICELLI, The Birth of Venus (c. 1480), Tempera on canvas, approx. 5’8” x 9’1”, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. Slide 15: (Left) BOTTICELLI’s Italian Early Renaissance Birth of Venus (c. 1475 CE); and (right) PRAXITELE’s Greek Late Classical Aphrodite (c. 350 BCE). Slide 16: GHIRLANDAIO. Giovanna Tornabuoni (1488), Oil and tempera on wood, 2’6” x 1’8”, Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection, Madrid, SP. Slide 17: (Left) Ghirlandaio’s Italian Early Renaissance Giovanna Tornabuoni (c. 1475); and (right) Leonardo’s High Renaissance La Bella Principessa (c. 1500) Slide 18: GHIRLANDAIO. An Old Man and His Grandson (1490), Tempera on wood, 62 x 46 cm., Musée du Louvre, Paris.