6 Final Exam Study Guide 1. Basic Information about the Solar System •Solar System is flat, all planets orbit in the same direction ♦Order of planets from the Sun: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune My Very Educated Mother Just Served Us Nine Pizzas) ♦Largest-Jupiter ♦Smallest-Mercury (Pluto is smaller; technically it is a dwarf planet) ♦Planets are much smaller than Sun ♦Terrestrial Planets- rocky, relatively small, and close to the Sun. ♦Jovian Planets- gaseous, large, and farther from the Sun. Type is determined by their size, composition, and location in the Solar System. 2. How was the solar system formed? ♦According to the nebular theory, the solar system formed from a giant cloud of interstellar gas. (Nebula=Cloud) 3. Motions of our solar system- planet orbits how they relate to each other, the Sun, how moons revolve around their planets ♦All large bodies in the solar system orbit in the same direction & in the same plane (Counterclockwise & Ecliptic) ♦Most also rotate in the direction (Counterclockwise) ♦Flattened structure and orderly orbit & spin of the planets important features of our solar system. ♦How do moons revolve around their planets? *4. Why did the protosolar system heat up as it collapsed and condensed? 5. What is accretion? ♦The process of assembly that occurs when gravity draws planetesimals together to form planets (gravity causes tiny solid particles to collide & stick together to form planets) 6. Characteristics of Terrestrial vs Jovian planets ♦Terrestrial (Inner) Planets- Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars Rocky Small Close to the Sun Similar in size & composition to Earth Iron core surrounded by rocky layers Formed from small particles of rock & metal that were present inside the frost line ♦Jovian Planets (Outer) - Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune Much larger than Earth Large amounts of Hydrogen gases & its compounds: Water, Methane, & Ammonia Deep, Thick, Dense Atmospheres No Solid Surface Many Moons & Rings Large Satellite Systems- Icy & have unusual properties such as volcanoes, dense atmospheres, & sub-surface oceans Strong atmospheric wind & storms Orbited by rings of rock and ice Magnetic fields stronger than Earth 7. Planet with the highest average surface temperature? •Venus 8. How did the moon form? Impact Theory of Moon’s Formation •Moon formed from material blasted out of Earth’s mantle by the impact of a Mars-sized body. •Happened around the time Earth was forming •Explains composition difference with Earth •Giant impact stripped matter from Earth’s crust -> Stripped Matter began to Orbit -> Accreted into Moon 10. Rock/Metal condensation line and frost line—what are they and why they are important. Importance- Caused the formation of the 2 types of planets because the light gases & ice could condense easily in the outer, colder parts of the nebula. Rocky & metallic materials could only condense in the hot inner parts of the nebula. 11. Lunar features and their relative ages. (Which are older, which are younger, how they formed) 3 Features •Lunar Highlands- Oldest, whitest/gray part of the moon •Mare- younger than Highland •Impact Craters- younger than Highlands 12. Why do we know Mars once had liquid water? 14. Know the differences in location, size, make-up and behavior between asteroids, comets, and meteoroids (Comets how they are similar and how they are different, what are they, where they are located.) 15. Know what meteoroids are called depending on where they are at. 16. Know parts of a comet 17. Remember Pluto is a dwarf planet not one of the 8 original planets. ♦Composed mainly of rock & ice. Much smaller than Mercury (which is the smallest planet) 18. Plasma vs. Dust tails and how the solar wind affects them. 20. Age of the Solar System & how it is determined. 4.6 Billion years old Age is determined by measuring the radioactivity of rocks from the Earth, Moon, & some asteroids 21. Which planets have rings, why, what are they made of. All Jovian Planets have rings. They formed from the dust created in impacts on moons orbiting those planets. Saturn’s rings are the most obvious, the others have rings but they are smaller, darker particles. They all have rings because they possess so many small moons that are so close-in. 22. What are the Jovian planets made of? How do the interiors of the Jovian planets differ? •Large amounts of Hydrogen gases & its compounds: Water, Methane, & Ammonia •No Solid Surface •Core- hydrogen compounds, metals, & rock •Layer under high pressure & temperatures •Jovian Planets all have similar interiors & compositions. Lower pressures inside Uranus & Neptune mean no metallic hydrogen. Interiors of the Jovian planets differ because- Accretion took longer further from the Sun, so the more distant planets formed their cores later & captured less gas from the solar nebula than the Jovian planets that were closer to the Sun. 23. Galilean moons of Jupiter, what is unique about each? 24. Planets, moons, asteroid belt, Kuiper Belt, Oort cloud…their relative positions with respect to the sun. 25. Why are Uranus and Neptune Blue? •Methane gas on Neptune & Uranus absorbs red light, but transmits blue light. Blue light reflects off the Methane clouds, making the planets look blue. 26. Icy moons and rocky planets… why are they different in their geologic activity? 27. Parts of a comet 29. Wavelength and frequency and energy of electromagnetic waves and how they differ from the red to the blue end of the spectrum. 30. Blue vs. Red Stars in relation to their temperatures •Blue Stars are the hottest •Red Stars are the coolest 31. Electromagnetic spectrum from shortest to longest wavelength Shortest Wavelength Gamma Rays X Rays Ultraviolet Visible Light Infrared Longest Wavelength Radio 32. Absorption, emission and continuous spectrum, how they form and what they tell us 33. Why are telescopes better than our eyes? Telescopes have a bigger light collecting area, & better angular resolution providing more detail.