The preface of the book talks about student-centered learning. As one moves from basic to superior levels of understanding typical of the level of the checkpoints, learning proceeds through the following steps in which order?
Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Synthesis
In the context of science, how would you classify the following statement? Dinosaurs become extinct because a large asteroid collided with Earth?
What is a characteristic of empirical observations?
They can be measured by others.
What is true about the scientific method
hypotheses are constructed to explain observations, but must be tested for validity, hypotheses necessarily allow predictions to be made, a hypothesis is different from a theory
Geology can help us learn about Earth's past by studying:
why a landscape looks the way it does, how life in the past was different than today, & how global climate has changed since the ice ages
Which method of science reasoning uses specific observations to draw general conclusions?
What is an atom that has lost or gained electrons?
What determines the atomic mass of an element?
The number of protons and neutrons
What types of bonding do atoms share one or more electrons?
The two elements most abundant in the earth's crusts are:
Silicon and Oxygen
Igneous rocks are mineral grains (2.5cm in size-large) primarily dark green and black. What else are characteristic?
the textural classification of the rock would be coarse grained
this rock likely has minerals with chemical elements like iron and magnesium a likely rock name for this specimen would be a gabbro
this rock would be classified as a plutonic rock
What contains high silica rocks: plutonic or volcanic or both?
both volcanic and plutonic
What forms deep in the earth? Plutonic, Volcanic, or Both?
What allows us to categorize rocks into the 3 rock types
process of formation
What does the shape of crystals indicate about the environment in which they formed?
they formed at great depth and under very high pressures
what has low silica rock that cools slowly
Suppose you pick up a rock that formed from the sediments of weathered rocks. What type of rock have you found?
Metamorphism takes place....
in the solid state with or without fluid activity
Where would you most likely find contact metamorphism?
Associated with a volcano
Minerals are.... (definition)
a sedimentary rock composed of clay-sized particles is best classified as:
The process of transforming loose sediment into rock is called?
Supporting evidence for continental drift includes ....
Matching of continental edges
Finding cold-climate fossils in equatorial regions
Magnetic reversal patterns on the sea floor
Divergent margins are where?
New lithosphere is being created
The acceptance of seafloor spreading was aided by the fact that:
the ocean crust is youngest adjacent to spreading ridges
Which is a modern example of volcanic mountain belt at an ocean-continent convergent boundary?
Andes Mts in South America
What determines which plate will subduct where 2 plates meet at an ocean-ocean plate boundary?
One plate will subduct and one will not, simply by chance
What is a tectonic plate?
The crust and underlying plastic asthenosphere above the mantle
Hess' hypothesis of the seafloor spreading is...
Rising material in the mantle spreads laterally, carrying the seafloor away from seafloor ridges in the center of the ocean basin.
The magnetic stripes of the sea floor...
record the reversal history of the earth's magnetic field
show a symmetric pattern on either side of a spreading ridge
are created as magma crystallizes at ridges
A driving force for plate tectonics is
Which area(s) on the world map is likely to have earthquakes?
Between South America & Africa (South Atlantic Ocean)
What is an estimate of the distance to the epicenter of an earthquake?
the time of arrival of the P waves
What is the Mercalli intensity scale based upon
Damage and human reports
what is the relationship between the line of strike and the direction of dip?
they are perpendicular
what foci pattern would occur for a mid-ocean ridge oriented north-south
shallow foci are oriented north-south along the ridge
__ waves travel the fastest of energy waves produced by earthquakes and can travel through__, whereas __- waves are slower and can travel through __.
P-waves, solids only, S-waves, solids, liquids, or gases
when quick clays (a type of soil) are shaken during an earthquake, they may lose their strength; this phenomenon is known as...
Why do shallow earthquakes occur to the east and deeper earthquakes occur to the west?
the subduction zone dips to the west
What is a form of body wave?
Approximately how much more energy is released by a magnitude 7 earthquake than a magnitude 5 earthquake
Deep earthquakes are uncommon because
not true, deep earthquakes are common
An earthquake's source of energy is located at the ____, but the location at the land surface above that point is called the ____.
Which volcanoes are most likely to explode & why?
Strato- b/c the magma is more viscous than in shield volcanoes
Which region in the continental U.S. has the highest hazard associated with volcanoes and why?
The pacific northwest b/c of the convergent plate boundary there
What type of volcano is MT. ST. Helens and what caused the explosion?
It is a strato-volcano that exploded when trapped gasses were quickly released
This material ejected from an erupting volcano includes airborne particles of all sizes
What are hazards associated with volcanoes
destruction by fast-moving lave
what is true about flood basalts?
they cover large areas and contain huge volumes of magma
they cover much of the Columbia Plateau of the Pacific Northwest
Some flood basalts erupted at about the same time as major extinctions of species
A relatively large, symmetrical volcano contains inter-layered lave flow, pyroclastic deposits, and volcanic mudflows. what kind of volcano is this?
What occurs in a lava tube?
burial of roads and neighborhoods by lava flows
Hazards not associated with basaltic lava flows and eruptions are:
floods from catastrophic melting of ice
what type of chemical weathering occurs when minerals dissolve in water?
predict the quality of soils in a tropical rain forest
high quality due to high levels of leaching
a soil that has little or no o-horizon but a think accumulation of calcium carbonate (caliche)most likely forms in:
an arid climate
what process is the disintegration and decomposition of rock at or near the earth's surface?
what triggers sliding, or increase the risk of landslides?
removing material at the bottom of a slope
a slump's scarp is ...
a clifflike scar at the head of the slump
which of the following measures would reduce the possibility of landsliding?
increased drainage of the slope
what is the effect of saturating a slope with water
it decreases the strength of slope materials
the driving force behind mass wasting is:
how does mass wasting connect the processes of weathering and erosion?
mass wasting processes remove material from the weathering site and transport it to a stream or the like
how do freezing, thawing, wetting, and drying contribute to sil creep?
the soil expands and contracts, lifting particles and dropping them a slight distance downslope
where do stream channels experience the most erosion?
on the outside of a bend where the velocity is higher
what can one deduce (figure out) about a region by analyzing stream patterns in an aerial photograph or a map
the geology beneath a stream
if a river originates 200 meters above sea level and travels 100 kilometers to the ocean, what is the average gradient in meters per kilometer?
2 meters per kilometer
what is the main reason that a delta forms when a stream flows into a lake or sea?
the velocity of the stream decreases
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