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A child’s legs begin to grow longer relative to the rest of his body; his proportions become more adultlike. These factors illustrate the principles of sequential and integrated growth.
The principle of differentiation refers to the gradual ability to identify and control individual body parts.
The pincer grip develops at about 12 months.
Rudy has just learned to walk; this is an example of the growth principle of
Carol is one. Her rate of growth has just slowed down. This is an example of the growth principle of
A baby lifts her head, then her head and shoulders. This is an example of the growth principle of
At first, the infant seems to flail his arms wildly, but he soon begins directing them for specific purposes, such as grasping a toy. This is an example of the growth principle of
José has just learned to crawl. This is an example of the growth principle of
Skylar holds his hands in a fist but does not reach for objects. Skylar is probably
Kate is at the 5th percentile for height and the 5th percentile for weight. She is probably
Chan’s height is at the 95th percentile, and her weight is at the 95th percentile. She is probably
Which of the following does not influence the development of particular motor skills?
Which of the following is not a reflex present at birth?
can be prevented by an adult
It is estimated that in 2009 _____ million children were living with HIV.
The CDC suggests that families can fight the obesity epidemic by
Teaching children about healthy foods.
Having healthy foods readily available to home.
Limiting time on electronic media and increasing exercise.
____________________ that include vehicles, burning, drowning, falls and poisoning frequently involve young children.
Infant vocalizing while observing mobiles is meaningless and unimportant.
It is important to label objects and people even for the smallest infants, as infants pick up understanding of language before speech.
Infants have been found to recognize categories such as human faces, birds, and dogs.
the face category is the most complex category that develops during the first year.
the face category begins to develop at birth.
infants remember the most obvious, consistent attributes of items in a category.
The materials in Younger’s categorization study
The infants in Younger’s study (1985) responded by
The results of Younger’s 1990 and 1993 studies and preceding studies indicate that
The Condon and Sander study showed that infants are able language communicators by
the differential cry
Labeling is an important component of cognitive development that appears as early as
Giving babies access to books and reading to them regularly
When an infant discovers connections within their own body and by chance repeats them, Piaget would say they are in the _____ substage of sensorimotor development.
Infant media viewing can support language development with adult interaction.
The average age for beginning to watch television is one month old.
About half of parents researched by Weber & Singer reported engaging in activities with infants while watching television with their infants.
affirms development continues through the life span.
has been used inappropriately.
supports much of what is already known about child development .
When a mother returns to the strange-situation room, her infant is usually delighted.
Infants who reject their mothers when the mothers return to the strange-situation room may have mothers who are insensitive and do not enjoy physical contact with the baby.
Fathers are just as interested in their newborns as mothers are.
Both social and cognitive development seem to be given a special lift from time spent with father.
Usually, when a mother returns to the strange-situation room
child care alone does not constitute either a risk or a benefit to the development of infant-mother attachment.
poor-quality, unstable, or more than minimal amounts of child care seem to add to the risk of poor mothering.
A critical time for developing an attachment seems to be
When challenged with a difficult task, securely attached two-year-olds usually
An examination of the attachment behaviors of mothers as compared with fathers indicates that
When parents and infants have difficulty in parting at the child care facility, the caretaker should
Imitation during infancy may serve an important function, such as
By age one, infant peer interactions are marked by exchanging ____ and ____.
New mothers who suffer from ____ show symptoms that may include low mood, tearfulness, irritability, emotional ups and downs, anxiety, and sleep difficulties.
Which of the following is not a sign of developing emotional difficulties in infancy?
The major task for toddlers is to seek autonomy.
Toddlers should not be allowed to eat with their fingers.
Obesity is becoming a problem for children as young as two.
In 2009, ___ million children lived in food insecure homes.
The major task of toddlers is to seek
Which of the following is not a factor contributing to increasing rates of obesity identified by Fraser?
Nancy, age two, says, “Do it myself!” as she sits in the bathtub, takes the soap from her mother’s hand, and rubs it over her body. Select the correct statement.
Toddlers are in the stage that Erikson labeled the crisis of
Toddlers with special needs do best when
Skinner’s theory of learning has been used as the basis for a technique called
Developmental changes in eating habits during the toddler years include
In 2001 __ percent of children lived with a substance abusing parent.
What percent of two year olds have diets that are rated as good?
Toddlers tend to lack which of the following in their diet?
Which of the following statements is true?
To develop autonomy, children with Down’s Syndrome need
Toddlers with special needs require assistance to achieve ____________________.
Toddler’s comprehension is ahead of speech development.
Two-year-olds are not yet able to solve problems using trial-and-error strategies.
When Chan Mung calls all stuffed animals “doggie,” this is an example of overextending categories.
While toddlers should avoid fatty meats and fried foods, Omega-6 and Omega-3 fatty acids are good fats that are essential to brain development and functioning.
Matt likes to draw with the red crayon. He is learning the concept of
Carlos is in the sandbox filling containers with sand. He is learning the concept of
substitutes /w/ for /r/, which is normal at his age.
doesn’t use the correct referent, which is normal for his age.
Toddler language and concept development are
Toddlers are known for their bedtime monologues. This “crib speech”
In comparing mother/toddler interaction in four cultures, Rogoff et al. (1993) did not find one of the following results. Select the correct statement.
Adults support toddler cognitive development by
Fats that are essential to brain development and functioning are
“Up!” is an example of ____________________ speech.
The self-talk or ____________________ that toddlers engage in when playing is, according to Vygotsky, a means of providing ____________________.
Toddlers are not yet at a stage where they gear their social play to the age of their playmates.
Within the zone of proximal development, learning is supported by
Foster and adopted children frequently lack early play experiences and need adults to
Keller et al. (2004) reported results from studying cultural parenting styles that indicated that
Results of observations of toddlers in child care settings (Howes et al., 1994) produced all but which one of the following factors in the interrelationships of the children and their teachers?
Toddlers who have experienced violence
Toddler imaginative play can be enhanced with opportunities to use materials such as
balls, climbers, ladders, and bridges.
paintbrushes and blocks. tricycles and wagons.
cooperative and prosocial behaviors
positive friendships and adult relationships
self-regulation of aggression and conflict
Parker and Nelson’s research indicated that institutionalized infants and toddlers may have
Which of the following is not a benefit of humor for toddlers?
Adults can best support toddler mental health by
Tomlin believes that “difficult” behavior
manages attention to focus on the problem at hand.
is lodged in the prefrontal cortex of the brain.
manages inhibitory control of emotions.
Caregivers can facilitate symbolic play by providing ____________________ of pretend activities.
It is difficult to separate the negative effects from malnutrition and sensory deprivation.
Rough-and-tumble play is unhealthy for children to participate in and leads to aggressive behavior.
Most children needing mental health services are able to receive help.
Nutrition education should be based on research and not on family food preferences.
Competent parenting is the most important factor in helping children manage adversity.
Misnourishment occurs when children consume enough calories but not enough nutrients.
Sari’s height is at the 65th percentile, and her weight is at the 80th percentile. She is probably
Kaden’s height is at the 99th percentile, and his weight is at the 97th percentile. He is probably
As children get older, their diets tend to
include multisensory activities.
include tasting, touching, preparing and eating a variety of foods.
include games, films, books, and trips.
The kindergarten playground equipment includes wooden seat swings, a 10-foot-high jungle gym, and a 12-foot-high slide with an asphalt ground cover. This situation would be considered
How many children and adolescents in the United States suffer from mental illness each year?
ChooseMyPlate is a U.S. Department of Agriculture image of the basic food groups
____ occurs when children consume enough calories but not enough nutrients.
The NASPE recommends at least ___ minutes a day of structured physical exercise for preschoolers.
Which of the following is a factor affecting physical growth?
Low height and weight for age are linked with lower ____________________ maturity.
____________________ provides USDA nutrition guidelines.
Children need to know safety rules and ____________________.
Children usually don’t master skipping until they are about six years old.
Margie is five years old and is advanced in her motor development, as she can print her first name, fold paper into halves and quarters, and trace around her hand.
Andrew is beginning to walk up and down stairs using alternating feet. He is probably
providing opportunities to run, climb, and slide outdoors.
having big blocks for muscle building.
playing active circle-time games indoors.
To help children develop upper body strength, playgrounds should include
Before children can use a writing tool, they must develop control of
When learning to write, children first develop small muscle skills and then coordinate
language and cognitive development
A child can hammer nails straight and copy complicated block designs. This is an example of
The child’s drawings include lines, curves, and circles. This is an example of
A five-year-old holds a pencil well with a loose grip. This is
Which of the following is not a sign of readiness for formal writing?
The most critical factor in the timing of the emergence of a particular motor skill is
Which of the following statements about handedness and brain specialization is true?
During the prenatal period, nerves cross from one side of the brain to the other.
Right handedness is controlled by the left hemisphere of the brain.
Left handedness is controlled by the right hemisphere of the brain.
Movement patterns can be broken down into specific three phase sequences including: ____________________, ____________________, and ____________________.
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