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once-dominant groups become extinct
New groups replace extinct groups
After the K/T event event what animals became dominate?
Intra species head – butting
Sexual selection- Big domes win
Spikes on its tail
No, Ankylosaurian fed on plants located near the ground and Stegosaurian’s grazed on plants located higher up and lower down.
It was a herbivore, and it was able to chew its food
They are diapsids
155 million years
Ephraim George Squire, "Great Mound at Grave Creek," from Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley (1848). Maintained that the knowledge required to complete such structures was greater than that "known to be possessed" by Hunter tribes. This belief contributed to the "Lost Race Theory" - which argued that a great civilization far beyond the existing Native Americans had inhabited these lands
Frederick Catherwood, "Stone Idol," from John Lloyd Stephens, Incidents of Travel in Central America (1841). Done during his explorations of the Yucatan. Catherwood and Stephens explored the Yucatan from 1841-1843. This image has significance because it represents a rediscovery of the Mayan Empire by the West. The image allowed the reader to have a more complete understanding of the region.
Giuliano Dati, La lettera, woodcut (1493) King Ferdinand takes possession of the Indian's territory and they flee Columbus's ships in terror. This indicates just how important the conquest of land is to the Spanish and to Europeans in general (>> trade). European settlers are pushing Indians farther into the interior of the continent to get their land.
Engraving of Jacques LeMoyne "The native queen on her litter," from Theodore De Bry, America part two (1590) Jacques Le Moyne painting, who accompanied a French Huguenot settlement in Florida. This depiction of a noble Native American woman from Florida is an ethnographic attempt to depict indigenous people in their native clothing and culture, though the de Bry exaggerated the musculature in the engraving.
John White, "The manner of their attire and painting themselves [The Warrior]" (1585). Again, here is another image by White that shows a true picture of the Native Garb with remarkable detail. The only inaccurate part to the image is the Native’s stance. This stance is more commonly associated with Europeans than Native Americans.
Engraving of John White watercolor of The Warrior, Theodore De Bry (1590) The engraving is much less detailed in terms of dress, tattoos, and other features but much more emphasis is placed on the physical strength of the Indians as its muscles are much more noticeable. Finally, the forehead is much more elongated than it is in the original White image.
Meeting of Cortes and Montezuma, Lienzo de Tlaxcala (c 1560) This image is part of the Lienzo de Tlaxcala, which was created by Tlaxcala scribes decades after the conquest of the Aztecs. The Tlaxcala allied with Spaniards to overthrow the Aztecs and remained allied with the Aztecs for generations afterward. This image shows Montezuma and his court meeting Cortes and Malinche.
"Casting Sodomites to the Dogs," Theodore De Bry, America part four (1594) This image shows the black legend of colonization by showing the Spanish explorers watching as their dogs mauled the "sodomite" native population. Other images in this book show the range of horrendous acts of torture that hark back to the Inquisition. Theodore De Bry borrowed from Girolamo Benozni and de las Casas to make it. Popular.
Cartouche (beavers) from Nicolas de Fer, "L’Amérique" (1698) Shows beavers at work. It is significant because it shows the esteem in which European trappers and traders held the beaver. They were impressed by its industriousness but more so by its fur. Beavers were almost hunted to extinction by native and European trappers because of the great demand for beaver fur in Europe.
French joining the Hurons making war on the Iroquois, Samuel de Champlain, Les
Voyages (1613) from the account of the French explorer and military leader Samuel de Champlain’s travels in present day Canada, shows a battle between Iroquois warriors and allied French-Huron forces. The battle depicted, with the French taking a side in an Indian dispute with the powerful and loathed Iroquois nation shows power politics
Buffalo, Louis Hennepin, A New Discovery of a Vast Country in America (1698) from the account of Louis Hennepin’s exploration of New France. During this time, the introduction of horses to the Americas allowed native peoples to form a new, nomadic way of life, hunting buffalo across the vast Americans plains and forming the iconic image of Indian life - 1st conquest of the plains
George Caleb Bingham, "Daniel Boone Escorting Settlers Through Cumberland Gap," (1851-52) Bingham’s = visual ethnography of midcentury frontier settlers, but they also often felt nostalgic - like a world in which time stands still. Here, Daniel Boone leads settlers out of the darkness of Cumberland Gap into the bright light of Kentucky. Boone = frontier spirit. Hopes of settlers coming to promised soil.
George Caleb Bingham, "Jolly Flatboatmen" (1848) Boatsmen is Bingham’s depiction of jolly, carefree frontiersman drifting down a beautiful river. Others (often Easterners) considered these men to be lazy, shiftless transients and roughnecks. Bingham “buys in” to the frontier myth and romanticizes while he documents.
Title page, John Casper Wild, The Valley of the Mississippi Illustrated (1846). depicts a frontier family moving in covered wagons to the Mississippi Valley. They are gathered at rest around a campfire, and behind them in the darkness of the trees stands an Indian with a hatchet in hand. The peacefulness of the campfire gathering is contrasted with the threat of Indian attack.
Indian atrocities, Hanna Lewis, Narrative of the Captivity and Providential Escape of
Mrs. James Lewis (1834) This image is an element to the formation of a popular fear of Indians around the time of Indian Removal. It sensationalizes natives for their paganism and pillaging, contributing to the popular sentiment which justified and coexisted with a policy of Indian Removal.
Thomas McKinney and James Hall, "Se-quo-yah," History of the Indian Tribes of North America (1838-44) In 1821 he completed his independent creation of the Cherokee syllabary, making Reading and writing in Cherokee possible. Shows how the Cherokees were able to adapt to the Western presence, as they wrote a constitution, owned slaves, went to SC.
Cover, Chicago Illustrated (1866). This image shows the substantial growth of the city of Chicago around the early half of the mid-19th century as Chicago would win as the location of the connection of Eastern manufacturing and southern demand along the Erie canal. This trading connection sustained Chicago’s growth in what seemed like no time from the picture on the left to the image on the right.
"Habitants de Californie," Louis Choris, Voyage pittoresque autour du monde (1822)Louis Choris was a Russian explorer of German stock who sailed to the Pacific coast of North America (including California) around 1816, painting what he saw. Shows. Choris’s depiction of Natives. The picture goes along with a general representation of Native peoples as barbarous and ugly. Notably, they do have clothing.
John Webber, "A Young Woman of the Sandwich Islands" from James Cook, Voyage to the Pacific (1784) part of a beachcombing tradition, where Europeans tried to find what was valuable in this new coastal territory. The woman pictured is a Hawaiian woman who illustrates the exotic beauty of the women of the Pacific. It is important that the artist, and the intended viewer, is male. Exoticized Pacific Coast.
Five woodcuts, Patrick Gass, A Journal of the Voyages and Travels of a Corps of Discovery (1812) Patrick Gass traveled with Louis and Clark during their expedition, helping out most noticeably as a carpenter. His journal was the first published material from the expedition and included these five pictures. Illustrate dichotomy between dominance (shooting Indian) and vulnerability (crashing canoe).
"Sioux Queen," W.R. Jones, Travels of Capts. Lewis and Clark (1809) The Sioux Queen images displays the poor portrayal of Native Americans in the 19th century. With intricate beads and designs the early paintings shows the tendency of early painters to magnify Native Americans. The Queen should also be noted for her empty gaze.
Karl Bodmer, "Interior of a Mandan Indian Earth Lodge" (1835) painting describes what an Indian living space was like. The artist views the scene from an outside perspective as the artist is not near the interaction of the Indians. Things to notice are the horses to the left, the people who are together in a circle symbolizing community and the vast array of hunting tools.
Karl Bodmer, "Dance of the Mandan Buffalo Society" (1835) represents a Native American war dance that only seems to consist of males. The artist makes the scene look barbaric and chaotic. The muscle definition of the male Indians is clear in their legs and arms, and they are painted with war paint, barbaric dress, and animal heads.
Alfred Jacob Miller, "Snake Girl Swinging" (1837) This image is the “penultimate image” of the sexual gaze, which was significant because it indicated that audiences of these images were male. This image in particular was for personal viewing of William Drummond Stuart, his patron. Miller sought erotic potential.
Alfred Jacob Miller, "The Trapper's Bride" (1845) Women always accompanied trappers because they kept the camp, prepared pelts, and helped make trading connections with tribal people. The relationships between trappers and these women were ones of exploitation, but also ones of stability. Many trappers had lasting and genuine marriages with these Indian women.
George Catlin, "Pigeon Head Going to and Returning from Washington" (1844) It is interesting to note that Pigeon Head costumes have similar type things such as something in his hands and both contains a feather. But Pigeon Head's white man costume a pipe is exchange for an umbrella and a chief war hat for a top hat with a feather. All of these changes signify the undeniable influence of the
white man expansion.
Emmanuel Leutz, "Westward the Course of Empire" (1864)
"Young Texas in Repose" (1845)
Richard Caton Woodville, "News From Mexico," lithograph (1848)
"Battle of Cerro Gordo" (1847)
Otto Becker, "Custer's Last Fight" (1896)
"Entrance of the Wagons into Santa Fe," from Josiah Gregg, Commerce of the Prairies (1844) a romantic portrayal of the Santa Fe trade, which demonstrated the mutual benefits of the connection between Mexico and the US. The iconic image show the men overlooking Santa Fe, excited for profit, as are the Mexicans. Every spring hundreds of caravans like this would travel to Santa Fe
B. F. Upton, "Red River Half-Breeds and Carts," (c 1857) Depicts Metís people their with their unique carts on the St. Paul trail. Metís turned to trading with expanding American population in southern Minnesota when buffalo and fur trade began to decline. Although the Red River trade was as lucrative as the Santa Fe trade, this image of “half-breeds” traveling to St. Paul is excluded from the memory of western trade
Albert Bierstadt, "Emigrants Crossing the Plains" (1867) depicts a wagon train crossing a western landscape. The landscape is pastoral, uninhabited and romanticized, suggesting that the landscape is ripe for Americans to take. Glorifies the "Emigrants" with nostalgia at a time when the West was becoming increasingly developed (completion of the Transcontinental Railroad two years later).
William Raney, "Prairie Burial" (1848) depicts a trailside burial, and emigrants mourning the death. Though a sad scene, the painting has a sense of peacefulness and tranquility which implies death was a necessary evil and honors Westerning (Manifest Destiny). Woman is notably distraught: reality of the West - men wanted to move west and dragged unhappy women along with them.
"Protecting the Settlers" Harper's (1861) As gold miners moved in to mine gold-rich streams in Indian territory, they saw Indians as their direct competitors for gold and food --> racial hatred. The image is significant because Harper's was one of the only magazines to somewhat accurately portray this occurrence. In drawing, settlers are attacking defenseless Indians for "safety".
William Sidney Mount, "California News" (1850) it displays the emotions and feelings that engulfed the country during the period of the Gold Rush. Everyday people rushed to the post office to hear if someone out west had struck gold. People decided to give up their entire lives in the east to chase a dream in the west. Commentary: painting of pigs rolling in mud above door implies dirtiness of this action
"Seeing the Elephant" (1850) The title originates from a story popular during that time about going to see the circus and only seeing the elephant. For many men during the Gold Rush they went west in search of fortune. However, they usually lost money trying to find gold. Yet they experienced some adventure, thus seeing the elephant even if they missed the circus.
John Gast, "American Progress" (1872) Shows a graceful female figure personifying America leading the way of settlers and trains from the well-lit metropolis in the East to the dark, unexplored West as buffalo and Native Americans flee her approach. America, with a telegraph wire in her left hand and a book symbolizing national enlightenment in her right, crosses westward. Manifest Destiny, inevitability of Western expansion.
Andrew J. Russell, "East and West Shaking Hands at Laying of Last Rail" (1869) Iconic image of the completion of the Transcontinental Railroad by best railroad photographer. Staged image, staged event. Ironic because although Central and Union Pacific built an east-west line, the junction point lay north-south because of attempts to make more profit by overlapping trail. Doesn't show Chinese workers.
Thomas Hill, "Driving the Last Spike" (1881) produced 12 years after the event and reproduced in engravings, depicts a carefully arranged assembly of railroad VIPs, including Leland Stanford with the hammer at the center. The Chinese workers in blue to the left of Stanford are among the few central figures who go unnamed by Hill.
James Walker, "California Vaqueros" (1876)
"A Drove of Texas Cattle Crossing a Stream," Harper’s Weekly (1867)
"Marlboro Man" (1955)
c. maximizing profits.
5. Which of the following statements is correct?
a.Opportunity costs equal explicit minus implicit costs.
b.Economists consider opportunity costs to be included in a firm’s total revenues.
c.Economists consider opportunity costs to be included in a firm’s costs of production.
d.All of the above are correct.
Variablecost divided by the change in quantity produced is
a.average variable cost.
c.average total cost.
d.None of the above is correct.
Supposea certain firm is able to produce 165 units of output per day when 15 workersare hired. The firm is able to produce 176 units of output per day when 16workers are hired (holding other inputs fixed). Then the marginal product ofthe 16th worker is
Larry'sLunchcart is a small street vendor business. If Larry makes 15 pretzels in hisfirst hour of business and incurs a total cost of $16.50, his average totalcost per pretzel is
b.long-run average total costs fall as output increases.
Whichof the following is not a characteristic of a perfectly competitivemarket?
Firms are price takers.
Firms can freely enter the market.
Many firms have market power.
Goods offered for sale are largely the same.
operating at the efficient scale.
Ina market with 1,000 identical firms, the short-run market supply is the
sum of the quantities supplied by each of the 1,000 individual firms at each price.
new firms to enter the market, even without government subsidies.
drive down profits of existing firms in the market.
Whichof the following statements is not correct?
a.In a long-run equilibrium, marginal firms make zero economic profit.
b.To maximize profit, firms should produce at a level of output where price equals average variable cost.
c.The amount of gold in the world is limited. Therefore, the gold jewelry market probably has a long-run supply curve that is upward sloping.
d. Long run supply curves are typically more elastic than short run supply curves
Whichof the following statements is not correct?
a.In a long-run equilibrium, firms must be operating at their efficient scale.
b.In the short run, the number of firms in an industry may be fixed.
c.In the long run, the number of firms can adjust to changing market conditions.
d.In the short run, firms must be operating at a level of output where price equals average variable cost.
In the short run, firms must be operating at a level of output where price equals average variable cost.
Amarket might have an upward-sloping long-run supply curve if
Negative externalities occur when one person's actions
Which of the following policies is the government most inclined touse when faced with a positive externality?
Which of the following is the most effective way to internalize atechnology spillover?
the market-based solution is less costly to society.
the market-based solution can result in a greater reduction in pollution.
the market-based solution raises revenue for the government.
In which of the following cases is the Coase theorem most likelyto solve the externality?
a.Ed is allergic to his roommate’s cat.
b.Chemicals from manufacturing plants in the Midwest are causing acid rain in Canada.
c.Polluted water runoff from farms is making residents of a nearby town sick.
d.Industrialization around the world is causing global warming.
in the smoking section. Bill dislikes the smell of cigarettesmoke. He notices that only one person, Peter, is smoking in the smokingsection. Bill values the absence of smoke at $15. Peter values the ability tosmoke in the restaurant at $10. In order for Bill to pay Peter not to smoke, hewill need to tip the waiter $10 to facilitate the transaction. Which of thefollowing represents an efficient solution?
Market failure associated with the free-rider problem is a resultof
The Tragedy of the Commons can be corrected by
What causes the Tragedy of the Commons?
Social and private incentives differ.
Common resources are not rival in consumption and are not excludable.
Common resources are not excludable but are rival in consumption.
Imagine a 2,000-acre park with picnic benches, trees, and a pond.Suppose it is publicly owned, and people are invited to enjoy its beauty. Whenthe weather is nice, it is difficult to find parking on summer afternoons.Otherwise, it is a great place. An efficient solution to the parking problemwould be toTerm
In which of the following examples are property rights notwell established?
a.Bill chooses to ride his bike to work rather than drive his car.
b.Groups of students play loud music in the open area between the dorms.
c.Sue reads a book on her patio.
d.Executives discuss corporate strategy in the company boardroom.
Whichof the following is not a characteristic of a monopoly?
a. barriers to entry
b. one seller
c. one buyer
d. a product without close substitutes
Whichof the following is an example of a barrier to entry?
a. Tom charges a higher price than his competitors for his house-painting services.
b. Dick obtains a copyright for the new computer game that he invented.
c. Harry offers free concerts on Sunday afternoons as a form of advertising.
d. Larry charges a lower price than his competitors for his lawn-mowing services.
2.Increasing the number of firms increases each firm’s average total cost.
3. One firm can supply output at a lower cost than two firms.
4.All of the above are correct.
YoungJohnny inherited the only local cable TV company in town after his fatherpassed away. The company is completely unregulated by the government and istherefore free to operate as it wishes. Assume that Johnny understands the power of his new monopoly. Which of thefollowing statements is (are) correct?
Whena firm operates under conditions of monopoly, its price is
Consumers'willingness to pay for a good minus the amount they actually pay for it equals
Inorder for antitrust laws to raise social welfare, the government must
Privateownership of a monopoly may benefit society because the monopoly will have anincentive to
is an attempt by a monopoly to increases its profit by selling the same good to different customers at different prices.
increases profits to the firm.
increases total surplus.
decreases consumer surplus.
Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
·Asserted that communism must not expand, but argued that capitalism could not go bankrupt in trying to contain communists. Thus, looked for cheap ways to containment (stemmed from costliness of Korea)
*A theoretical phyicist who is most famous for his involvement in the Manhattam Project.
*"And now I have become Death, destroyer of worlds."
*After WW2 he became the chief advisor of US Atomic Energy Commission
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