Ch. 6 continued Consequences of High Fertility: Some conflicting Opinions Classical (orthodox) Conclusion: Consequences of rapid population growth lead to serious development problems two opposing views its not a real problem it?s a real problem IT?S NOT A REAL PROBLEM 1.1 The real problem is not rapid population growth but the following issues underdevelopment development should be the only goal because it will generate economic progress and other social mechanisms that will automatically regulate population growth World resource depletion and environmental destruction Developed nations should lower their excessively high consumption standards before asking developing nations to restrict their population growth Population distribution Main problem is the distribution of population in space. Then, governments should reduce rural-urban migration to bring about a more efficient spatial population distribution in terms of available productive resources. Subordination of women Population growth is a natural outcome of women?s lack of economic opportunity 1.2. It?s a deliberately contrived false issue: population growth is a false issue intentionally created by dominant rich country agencies and institutions to keep LDC?s in their underdeveloped status excessive concern of MDC?s with population growth of LDC?s is an attempt by MDC?s to slow down the development process in LDC?s, thus maintain the international status quo that is favorable to themselves 1.3 It?s a desirable phenomenon For many developing countries, population growth is an essential ingredient to stimulate economic growth because larger populations provide Necessary consumer demand to obtain the economies of scale in production to lower average production costs Sufficiently large low-cost labor force to achieve higher output levels IT?S A REAL PROBLEM Extremist Argument unrestrained population growth is the principal cause of poverty, low levels of living, malnutrition, poor health conditions, environmental degradation, etc population stabilization is the most urgent task even if it requires severe and coercive measures/impositions on developing countries Theoretical Argument (population-poverty cycle theory) population growth inhibits the prospects of a better life for the already born by: reducing savings rates at the household level drawing down limited governmental revenues to provide the most basic economic, health, and social services to the additional people Population growth lowers the national savings rate (both private and public) delaying the capital accumulation process. Resulting low levels of investment impede rapid improvements in material lives Empirical argument empirical research document the negative consequence of population growth on: economic growth (rapid population growth lowers per capita income growth in most LDC?s) poverty and inequality (negative consequence of rapid population growth fall most heavily on the poor) food (feeding everybody gets more difficult given the rapid population growth trends) environmental (rapid population growth leads to faster environmental degradation) Goals and Objectives toward a Consensus Three propositions constitute the principle components of the consensus opinion: population is not the primary cause of lower living levels, gross inequalities, and limitations on the freedom to choose its not only numbers (i.e. population growth rate per year) but quality of life. Rapid population growth intensifies the problems of underdevelopment Three policy goals to deal with problems associated with rapid population growth: policies should target not only the population variable per se but also the underlying social and economic conditions of underdevelopment (absolute poverty, widespread unemployment, etc) family planning programs should provide education and technological means to regulate fertility to those who wish to regulate it developed countries have the additional responsibility to reduce their excessive use of non-renewable world resources
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