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Rich and Poor: a widening gap
Biggest in the U.S
have generated great wealth= with Tremendous Wealth often comes: Tremendous Social Inequalities
based on fixed standard of living.
1960's: sharp decline in poverty because of War on Poverty.
Than it started grow again in the 1980s than dropped a bit than increased again in the 1990s.
The lower part of the poverty class who are excluded from the economic and cultural mainstream of society.
Way different in North America than in European Societies.
America: show little support for government efforts to guarantee welfar/ jobs.
Europe: Consider gvt. involvment in those areas good.
Division of Roles in a society
Stratification: Different access to resources, influence, status, and perceived worth; leads to - Inequalities
Achievement based, with movement between classes; class backgrounds influence achievement (modern industrial).
Position one holds relative to economic, social, political, and cultural resources of a society. influences LIFE CHANCES
Government policies; tax policy
Poverty=result of malfunctions in economy (ex. Rapid industrialization)
Some Inequality of wealth and rewards is good for a society= Provides motivation to fill important social roles. Inequality is functional
System of domination is based on class inequalities and blocked opportunities
Inequality serves interest of the powerful
view-->Value-Based approach --advocating a position.
Societies have undergone change based on how they produce goods:
Historical Stages: Primitive communalism = shared ownership, Slavery based societies= slave labor,Feudal Societies= land owners serfs.
Capitalist Societies= property owners and workers.
Growth of Industrial-Capitalism brought change in social relations:
-People flocked to cities and factories.
Value Neutral--Objectivity --not political
Social Stratification is “Multidimensional”
1) Class –shared economic position
2) Status- cultural dimension; shared mode of life
3) Party-political dimension-power and influence.
A group of people who share a set of physical characteristics; and/or a common ancestry
Emphasis on: Biology, outward appearance; genealogy/ ancestry
A group of people who share a common set of cultural characteristics; and/or national origin
1. Togetherness, shared social experience
2. Voluntary, self-defines, source of personal pride and loyalty
- An attempt to classify human populations into distinct racial categories (with separate origins and histories).
- Study of “Primitive” races- implied racial supremacy of European “races”, culture, and civilization.
New Approach based on Genetic data: The Journey of Man (2002); Researcher Spencer Wells(Geneticist).
-Traces human migration from 50,000 years forward.
- A science based on mapping genetic markers and human DNA trails.
-Reveals unity among human beings; different histories and lineages. Based on common ancestry.
i. Clear division of gender roles within social structure
ii. Division of: “Instrumental and Expressive” roles
Found differences in gender roles across three societies of New Guinea
Arapesh: cooperative, maternal personality-amongst both men and women; ideal=mild and responsive.
-Mundugumor:aggressive, ruthless personality amongst both men and women; ideal= violent and aggressive.
-Tchambuli-women dominant, impersonal, managing; men emotionally dependent on women.
Gender roles are malleable-shaped by culture and social conditioning
learning the expectations associated with the sexes/genders.
Sources: Parents, Peers, Schools, Religion, Media
Different opportunities within institutions shaped by sex/gender.
Historically: open discrimination-Today, Differences in majors: Women in science?
60 years ago: ¼ of U.S women worked within the labor force.
-Today: close to 70% of women work within the labor force.
1975= women earned 60% of men’s earnings.2005= women earn 75-77% of mens earnings.
Men and Women fill complementary roles.
-Men fill “Instrumental” roles.
-Women fill “expressive” roles.-Blended roles may be “dysfunctional”
Economic institutions devalue women’s work; through wage inequality
-Political institutions have been controlled by men.
call for a response to prejudice and discrimination through government and other institutions-(Liberal feminists)
-Focus on capitalist system- Socialist feminists
-Focus on total overhaul of “Patriarchal Culture” (Radical Feminists)
Focus on Gender Socialization
-Reproducing Norms: by “Doing Gender”
-Gender norms carry strong positive and negative sanctions for both sexes/genders
-Roles are perpetuated when people act according to existing cultural norms.
i. Deliberately planned groups
ii. With some specific goal or goals
iii. Designed to outlive particular individuals
iv. Based on a set of formal-impersonal rules.Based on a fixed structure of authority, roles, and responsibilities
1. Emphasis on reliability, regularity, precision, and competence.
2. And NOT: heredity, kinship, religious status, personal loyalty, or friendship connections.
a. The most common form of social organization within complex organizations
i. Clear division of labor/tasks/positions
ii. Hierarchy of Authority/command
iii. Set of formal rules/ procedures/ written documents/ records-keeping
A form of “social technology”
i. Government- creates laws and procedures that govern society
ii. Legal System- Court and prison system- punishment, passing of judgments
iii. Police- enforce laws
Military- defense, foreign and domestic
i. Long standing traditions, often hereditary, giving certain groups power over others.
i. Based on personal appeal, often emerges during times of crisis (dictatorships)
i. Based on an accepted system of established rules, regulations, laws, and codes of conduct. Basis of Modern Nation-States/Governments.
State Power comes from “below”- willing “collective acceptance”
State Power comes through:
i. Power in society is exercised through a democratic process
ii. Power is achieved through the organization of concerned people and groups; around issues.No one group is politically dominate, many elites- different interests
i. Power in society is controlled by an elite who hold dominant political, military, and economic positions
ii. The power elite share a unity of interests and goals
Power elite ensures that no serious challenge to its control are tolerated within politics
i. Officials in government are an independent power group in their own right.
ii. The structure of capitalist society forces the government protects the interests of the upper/corporate classes;
Negatively valued behavior
-Violation of social Norms
The Attempt to punish, charge, or isolate deviants.
Encourages the acceptance and legitamacy of existing social institutions
-Contributes to the belief that the established norms and laws are the correct ones.
-Attempt to shape ppls belifs.
Institutions: Families, Peer Groups, Schools
Comparison of Facist and Communist Systems of Control. (Hanna Arendt)
-One Party Rule
-One dominant idealogy
-Use of repression and violence
-use of secret police
-Total control of Public and Private life.
Case Study: Singapore
Singapores methods of control
Violation of a criminal law
Ex: Felony, Middemeanor, Violent Crime, Victimless crime(gambeling) thought crime.
Accuracy isnt easy.
-Uniform Crime Reports-FBI Stats.
-National Crime Victimization Survey
Based on "Rational Choice Theory"
-offenders seek to maximize self interests:wants and desires.
Emphasis on psychological disturbance
A social group with values and attitutdes that encourage deviance
-Gap between Ideals and Achievements
-Individual Rights Violations.
-Changing World and Worldview Belief.
-Culture (beliefs and practices)
-Political Systems and Organization
-With different ways to organize, operate, and believe and behave.
-How social problems are: Defined and Identified and How different societies (and different groups within societies) may create, define, and react to social problems differently.
1. Ability to look at the Big picture of societies, cultures, institutions and their problems
2. The view Personal Troubles as Public Issues. (C.W Mills)
a. A risk that might have the potential to inflict serious damage to human well-being on a global scale.
a. The expectation that the world will be destroyed and replaced with a perfect world; that a redeemer will come to chase down the evil and raise up the righteous.
1. A form of millennialism in which Human acts are necessary to bring about the millennium (led by a messiah)
End of history
1. or a transitory stage in human history.
2008 Presidential Election, Separation of Church and State, Gun Control, ect.
ii. Policy Determination
a. At each stage the values and interests of different groups often clash:
i. With most SP , there is an “Objective Condition”; but a “Subjective Definition”
ii. The value Conflict emerges out of this volatile situation.
b. Often, Value conflict leads to either stalemates or loss by the weaker party.
Political Rights = the Right to:
-Participate freely in the political process
-Vote freely for distinct alternatives in legitimate elections
-Compete for public office and join political parties and organizations
-Elect representatives who are accountable to the electorate.
-Freedom of expression and belief
-Associational and organizational rights
-Rule of law
-Personal autonomy without interference from the state.
Freedom of Press Media Restrictions –a lot easier to control print media.
In the Worst–Rated countries (Cuba, Libya, North Korea)
-Independent media are either nonexistent or barely able to operate.
-Or : the mouthpiece of ruling regime; citizens access to information is severely limited.
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