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The associations, stereotypes and social patterns that culture and constructs on the bias of actual perceived differences between men and women
In most cultures, and throughout most of history, women have borne the major responsibility for carrying out reproductive activites, as well as contributing to productive activities?
Ignoring gender makes it difficult to recognize that the welfare of the next generation may be jeopardized and the development of human resources held back?
Its been said that macroeconomics often takes the reproductive economy for granted.
1) they encourage theoretical precision and provide clarity, organization, and direction
2) the use of models allows for better communication with the mainstream economic world, and may make it easier to modify mainstream processes
3) Models are used in policy making decisions, and may help get feminist ideas across.
1) Makes unpaid household labour visible and treats it as a produced output
2) gets the point across that gender(like race and class) influence the distribution of work, income, and wealth, the productivity of work, and effects the behavior of all agents in the economy.
3) showcases the gender-biases of micro and macro level institutions such as households, government agencies, firms, and even markets, from which economic outcomes emerge.
Are markets, firms, and other institutions intrinsically gendered?
The household is like a small factory?
Becker's initial family study is based on one man and one woman, and children are added later?
Becker's work is designed to relate to the real world and to guide empirical work?
Marshallian, supply/demand analysis.
An individuals sense of how a household is run determines the types of questions they ask, and how they interpret the answers?
True...this is why the neoclassical approach to viewing the household remained unchallenged until recently when feminist economists/post-modernists began to contest to their findings. Objuective research, which is what neoclassicalists do, can be tricky as there are all sorts of biases and assumptions that are made along the way.
"The New Household Economics" was once the dominant neo-classical model of the household?
Evidence exists which suggests that income and resources in the hands of women were spent very differently compared to men in parts of Asia and Africa?
Because how goods are distributed throughout the household is determined by gender.
A few examples:
1. Changes in the price of milk in Indonesia had no effect on the likeliness of illness among farm heads or their wives
2. Changes in the price of vegetables had a significantly negative effect on illness among household heads but not their wives.
3. Changes in the price of fruit had a positive but statistically insignificant effect on farm wives but not their husbands.
It is difficult to make theoretical sense of an individual's propensity to consume items such as milk, vegetables, or fruit using neoclassical framework? why?
Women do more housework than men despite increase in FLFP?
True...however recent data suggests that male non market work, espcecially for those with young children, has increased since the 1970s, BUT, research also suggests that men perform a smaller share of female tasks(non-market tasks) because they generally earn more than women.
What assumption do labour market resources(earnnings and education) make?
That husbands and wives employment characteristics influence the balance of power over the distribution of income in the home. IOW...whoever brings home the most bacon doesnt have to cook it because they have the power to reduce their workload in the family!
Many resource models assume that as a woman enters the formal labour market her relative power over domestic decisions will increase, ultimately reducing her relative responsibility for traditionally female chores?
False...research suggests that women's labour force participation acts neither as a significant resource for family power nor for the reallocation of household tasks in many developed countries.
There are many mixed findings between the correlation of income/occupational status and the amount of housework performed by men and women?
True, some conclude:
-that there is a correlation and some say no.
-some research suggests that men in higher status occ do more housework than those in lower status occ, because lower status work is more physically demanding.
-some say that the greater the income gap in the husbands favour, the less housework they do.
An increase in a woman's personal earnings may reduce her share of housework because purchasing substitutes becomes more affordable?
The final results are in...Canadian women have a greater responsibility than Canadian men for each of these five traditionally female tasks, regardless of whether they are
employed or not:
-general chores, etc.
-French Canadian couples appear to be slightly more progressive than english-canadian couples when it comes to equal resp of the housework
-Young men do more work around the house than older men, which means there is a general trend towards equality.
Women have different preferences than men when it comes to job preference?
True...women are more risk-averse than men, are willing to trade earnings for hours flexibility than men. Note...this can lead to sex segregation WITH or WITHOUT accompanying compensating differential.
Women choose different jobs than men ONLY because they have different preferences than men?
-men often work swing shifts(eves and night)
-women less likely to work overtime
-men less likely to work part-time
-women prefer jobs with flexible hours
-men are more willing to work in hazardous conditions than women
-men show more attachment to their employment and occupations and are more interested in advancement at work
The theory of compensating differential predicts that unpleasant jobs will pay more than pleasant jobs, where relative pleasantness can include low risk of injury, low risk of unemployment, good fringe benefits, and many other positive working conditions
True...risk taking is one of the only PROVEN compensating
differentials that actually exists, and effects both men and women.
Limited support for compensating differentials actually exists?
Women's different pref in job characteristics influence their human capital investment choices?
Working conditions may be set by the firm so as to screen out men and women implicitly or explicitly?
For every occupation group, for part-time and full time workers, for every educational level and every region in Canada, men receive higher average earnings?
1)job discrimination-women are confined to low wage jobs
2)wage discrimination-women are paid less to do the exact same work
Since 1992, women's annual earnings(full-time work) have been about 70% of men's, and if part-time jobs were incorporated, this number would be even lower?
-full time working women are working fewer hours than full time working men(overtime)
-Unionization reduces wage differences, but many women are not unionized
Education, on-the-job-training explain about half of the earning differential?
1) Men's work is less likely to be disrupted by family obligations
2) Childbearing and family responsibilities put women at a disadvantage in terms of advancement and wage increase
No...the reason being is that in male-dominated occupational categories, there is greater wage disparity between men and women than in female dominated categories.
increases both hours worked and wages, therefore career earnings, as well as post motherhood wage rates?
-earnings of 9%
-wages of 3%
-work hours of 6%
Evidence indicates that a 'mommy track" exists and this is why women delay having children?
Supply side-mothers may reduce their hours in the labour market and invest less in skill development.
DEMAND SIDE-employers may offer mothers fewer training and advancement opportunities.
Note; the two are likely interconnected!
Evidence shows that ECONOMISTS have experienced persistently large and unexplained gender differences in advancement to tenured ranks during the past decade, especially when compared with comparable academic disciplines.
All studies of gender differences come down to the interpretation that one places on an
unexplained coefficient on a gender variable or differences in coefficients when estimates are
allowed to vary by gender. Such studies always leave a reader grasping for possible alternative
variables, whether potentially observable or not, which might fill the gap and offer an economic
Given that the supply-side characteristics do not adequately explain the gender promotion gap in economics, we are left to wonder whether institutional and departmental behaviors contribute to the gender gap.
previous publications, women's fertility choices.
-men and women's comparative advantage patterns have become more similar
-the relative benefits of marriage have decreased
-number of men in different age cohort compared to women-fewer men to choose from
-individuals can SOCIALIZE without having a family
-median age at first marriage has increased for both sexes
-marriage rate has decreased
-divorce rate has increased
-fertility rate has decreased
-changes in the rules governing divorce
-increased ability of women to support families alone
-improved access to reliable contraception and abortion-children were once the glue!
-shift from agrarian lifestyle
-the shift in the status of children from producers to consumers
-the spread of universal education-people can't afford to have too many in school at once
-societies less religious-
-Society is less PATRIARCHIAL
-cost of children
-the probability of children surviving infancy has increased
-children NOT investment pieces anymore...parents invest in childen by providing them with human capital.
Births have a rel. elastic response to wage change?
-increase in women's wage would REDUCE birth by same%
-increase in men's wage would INCREASE birth by same %
It is difficult to measure changes in well being to a household when women enter into the labour market?
True...women gain wages so the family utility increases, HOWEVER, she reduces her non-market production so utility declines.
Note: non-market work in monetary terms is difficult to measure.
-50% of women in their thirties earning high(over 25,000) are childless, while only 28% of high earning men are
-24% of women earning low wages are childless
-less time devoted to children as the primary care giver(mother) has to work more
-short-run effects hard on children, in the long-run, it is better for children not to be in a troubled family.
FLFP is rising in the professional job sector(law/medicine)?
What does the term "glass ceiling refer to"?
-discriminatory practices of top level managers
-although it is possible to rise to the top, few women make it
-19 out of 4000 senior managers in major corp. are women(under 0.5%)
Women's presence in male dominated high ranking positions is for "window dressing" and "for show"?
-gender linked diff in tastes and preferences
-gender-linked diff in abilities to work
-reduce work disruptions related to sexual tensions
Why can't ABILITIES alone explain the gender segregation in preindustrialized societies?
Employers have imperfect information about individuals abilities, and make presumptions which lead to gender segregation in the workforce?
-a negative correlation btw. % of female workers and median weekly earnings
-men make more than women in every occupation
-the male dom. occupations include the most prestigious ones such as law, medicine, and university professors
The process that generates lower wages for women even if women and men are EQUALLY skilled.
-women earn lower wages because they are SYSTEMATICALLY EXLUDED from higher paying jobs and hired only to fill lower paying ones
-payrates NOT determined by the market
-women are SYSTEMATICALLY EXCLUDED from more desirable jobs and CROWD into less desirable ones
-in this model, wage rates ARE determined by the market, HOWEVER, the female labour supply is artificially reduced for the more desirable jobs, HENCE, there will be a higher supply of female labour in the less desirable jobs, which depresses wages
Note-labour supply is lower in the more desirable jobs, which means wages are higher
-women work part-time more than men
-men work more overtime than women
-avail. of cheap/quality child care
-on site child care
Note--supply and demand respond to policy
-women working fewer hours
-women not in high ranking jobs as much as men.
-not in high paying jobs relative to men
-not part of unions as much as men
-women's higher education
-women are having kids after they have established their careers
-women more unionized
-women working in male-dom occupations
Yes...an excess of female workers in female dominated jobs-drives down wages
NOTE: the effects of cultural/social attitudes channels women into a narrow range of occupations
-indirect-exclude most members of a specific group-such as women form employement in certain occupations. Ex...height and weight requirement to be a police officer
-employers resist hiring any specific group-ie females
-employers prefer hiring people who can be expected to stay with the firm for a LONG period of time- employers think women are going to quit, go on leave to have kids
-women's less stable work patterns are a basis for this type of discrimination
-measure of the economic value of an employees skill set-their education, experience, and ability
-higher human capital=higher productivity
-an employee rents the use of human capital from an employer
-women may be more likely to invest in human capital that has high non-market return
-non-market work, market work, and leisure all important to women
Yes...continuity in work becomes extremely important
-this makes it difficult for many women to keep up with men in regards to earnings, because they have had interuptions in their work.
Also, women may not bother to pursue their human capital ability, because they know there is job and wage discrimination, THEN, wages will be lower for women that men-this is an INDIRECT AFFECT OF DISCRIM
-HALF of the gender earning gap can be explained by this-due to women's family responsibilities.
Discriminations against women explain a large portion of the gender earning gap, the rest can be explained by:
Economic models that ignore gender and racial discrim do not explain the real world?
Until recently, most studies on gender differences were focused on white women, while studies on racial differences were mainly focused on black men---this will be of limited use when addressing the disadvantages accruing to women of colour.
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