Cytosine bases adjacent to guanine nucleotides; so two meythylated cytosines set diagonally across from each other on opposing strands.
Transcriptional activator proteins and coactivators; bind to regulatory promoter or enhancer and increase rate of transcription.
Repressors: bind to regulatory promotor or silencers and repress transcriptions.
Hide the effect of another mutation:
Icidence of a mutation within ha group.
"How often does it happen?" is the question asked. <---births
A loss of -NH3
Deamination of cytosine--> Uracil
Deamination of 5-mthyl cytosine-->thymine
Form pyramidine dimers
Cyclin-dependent Kinases (CDK's)
Regulated by mitosis promoting factor, or MPF=Cyclin B + CDK
Amount of CDK stays constant, but cyclin varies.
Proteins that prevent cyclin-CDK's from functioning, helpt to regulate cell cycle. An example is p53
additional mutations as they divide and become more proliferted.
Stage 1: Establishment of anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral axis.
Stage 2: Orientation of body segments
Stage 3: Establishment of identifying characteristics of body segments.
Genetic Maternal Effect
Some translated by mother
Some translated after fertilization.
Embryonic stem cells (Leftover IVF embryos)
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (cloned embryo created)
Adult stem cells (found in many cells)
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