Economic Geographies I: Dimensions of Economic Development 10/13/09 What is Economic Development? Development is a contested term Knox and Marston: Development- ?processes of change involving the nature and composition of the economy of a particular region as well as to increases in the overall prosperity of a region.? Influence of economic structure, organization and technology Development often contrasted to ?underdevelopment? Global Core-periphery patterns and indices of development Gross National Product (GNP) vs Gross National Income (GNI) Use of purchasing power parity (PPP) -measures a common market basket of goods and resources ($ in Syracuse, not soame as $ in NYC) Core nations-GNI in PPP $70,000/ per capita Semiperiphery- $7000-$9000 Periphery- less than $5000 Overall: growing inequality -Rich getting richer, poor poorer Other measures-education, gender empowerment Most comprehensive UN Human Development Index (HDI) based on life expectancy, education and personal income 2007-08-Iceland (.962) Norway (.957) highest HDI All measures make assumptions about what development means Explaining Development/Underdevelopment 1)Environmental Development determined by environment/resources Resources unevenly distributed ex. Energy/ Cultivatable Land Carrying capacity-not absolute 2) Rostow?s Stage Model Written in a Cold War contex Focus on internal problems All countries pass through historical stages (1) Traditional society (2) Pre-conditions for take off (3)Take-off (4) Drive to Maturity (diverse and sustained growth) (5) High Mass Consumption 3) Development of Underdevelopment Radical perspective-focus on external factors Core underdevelops periphery Not all nations will industrialize Historical context different for periphery (i) Colonialism/neo-colonialism (ii) Debt crisis and structural adjustment (iii) Periphery marginalizes trade jobs Explaining East Asian Economic Development Rapid development conforms to neither Rostow nor Frank Internal/external reasons (i) Cold War (ii) Proximity to Japan (iii) Chinese Revolution (iv) Chinese Immigration in East Asia (v) Key role of the state Chinese Economic Development- Land reform, education + health care after 1949 Revolution 1978 Open Door Policy + Four Modernizations Move from command economy to free enterprise Use of Special Economic Zones (SEZ) Joined WTO (2001) Key role of State Challenges Confronting China Highly dependent on exports (esp. to the US) Rapid rural-urban migration Rising inequality/environmental problems Increasing thnic unrest (ex. Tibet)
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