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Western Kentucky University
EDU PSY 310
EDU PSY 310
Western Kentucky University
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group that receives treatment during an experiment
group that receives no special treatment during an experiment
individuals are assigned by chance to receive different practical treatments or programs
research into the relationships between variables as they naturally occur
High levels of one variable correspond to high levels of another
High levels of one variable correspond to low levels of another
Descriptive Research Method
aimed at identifying and gathering detailed information about something of interest.
Mental patterns that guide behavior
understanding new experiences in terms of existing schemes.
[picks up small ball with one hand, then a large ball with two hands].
Modifying existing schemes to fit new situations.
Begins to interact with the environment; to make use of imitation, memory, and thought.
the fact that an object exists even if it is out of sight.
begins to represent the world, a gradual increase in language development
the ability to perform a mental operation and then reverse one's thinking to return to the starting point.
[does your brother have a brother?]
believing that everyone views the world as you do.
[child believes sun comes up when they open their eyes].
Concrete Operational Stage
able to master conservation problems, classify and seriate, understands reversibility
[does this glass of water have the same in this glass?]
the concept that certain properties of an object (such as weight) remain the same regardless of changes in other properties (such as height).
Formal Operational Stage
thinks abstractly, tests hypothesis', develops concerns about social issues and identity.
childrens self-talk, which guides their thinking and action; eventually internalized as silent inner speech
Zone of Proximal Development
level of development immediately above a person's present level: tasks are sometimes too difficult to be done alone, but can be done through cooperative dialogue with adults or skilled peers.
support for learning and problem solving.
Values & Expectations, Summer Learning, Parents, Community, Quality of Schools, Child-Rearing, Beliefs of Schools, Socio-Economic Status
Very Excited Squirrels Pretend Cowboys Quack Continuously; rambunctious baboons swim slowly.
Sternberg: Analytical, Creative, Practical
Ashley Peels Coconuts
ability to acquire knowledge, to compare and contrast, to evaluate, to engage in higher-order mental processes such as critical thinking.
ability to adapt to our environment, to modify/shape our environment, or to select the environment we want to live in.
the ability to deal with new tasks, to solve novel problems, to come up with new ideas, etc.
Logical Mathematical, Linguistic, Musical, Spatial, Bodily/Kinesthetic, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal, Naturalistic, Existential
more motivated to learn and improve their abilities, more open to challenging tasks, interested in accurate feedback regardless of task experience
more motivated to maintain a positive self-view of intelligence, prefer easy tasks, more interested in feedback after experienced success than after experienced failure.
A stimulus that naturally evokes a particular response
A behavior that is prompted automatically by a stimulus
a previously neutral stimulus that evokes a particular response after having been paired with an unconditioned stimulus
the process of repeatedly associating a previously neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus in order to evoke a conditioned response.
Skinner's Operant Conditioning
the use of pleasant or unpleasant consequences to control the occurrence of behavior.
the component of memory in which limited amounts of information can be stored for a few seconds.
5 to 9
mental repetition of information, which can improve its retention
stores images of our personal experience
stores facts and general knowledge
stores information about how to do things
Decreased ability to recall previously learned information, caused by learning of new information
ex: learning the letter b then the letter d
Interference from existing knowledge
ex: learning to drive in England
Increased comprehension of previously learned information because of the acquisition of new information
ex. Latin helps students understand English better.
Increased ability to learn new information based on the presence of previously acquired information
ex. learning Spanish may help students learn Italian
Teacher Transmits Information
Research on Effectiveness of Direct Instruction
-Correlation between student achievement and strategies associated with direct instruction
-Experimental studies show mixed results for the effectiveness of direct instruction-can improve basic skills
Constructivist View of Learning
Learners must individually discover and transform complex information
Discovery of Basic Skills
students are encouraged to discover principles for themselves
for mixed-ability groupings involving teams recognition and group responsibility for individual learning.
program for teaching reading and writing in upper elementary grades; students work in four member learning teams.
broken down into sections
heterogeneous people work together on assignments
Cooperative inquiry, group discussion and planning, then make presentations to the whole class on their findings
work in pairs and take turns orally summarizing sections of material to be learned.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Motivation as a drive to satisfy needs
basic requirements for physical and psychological well-being as identified by Maslow
ex: physiological, Safety, Belongingness & Love, Esteem Needs
needs for knowing ,appreciating, and understanding, which people try to satisfy after their basic needs are met.
ex: need to know and understand, aesthetic needs, self-actualization
a theory of motivation that focuses on how people explain the causes of their own success and failures
Individual's own abilities or efforts are responsible for success/failure
internal stable: A+ because I'm good at it
internal unstable: A+ because I worked hard
Luck, Task difficulty, other peoples actions are responsible for success/failure
external stable: A+ because it was easy.
external unstable: A+ because I was lucky
Expectancy Valence Model of Motivation
theory that relates the probability and the incentive value of success to motivation.
Learning Goal Orientation
goals of students who are motivated by desire of knowledge
goals of students who are motivated by desire to gain recognition from others and to earn good grades
intermediate difficulty, motivation increase after a failure
very difficult or very easy, maintain self-image, decrease efforts after a fail.
Opportunities, Feedback, Set Goals, Provide Expectations
Popcorn only pops for some guppies per evaluation
activity people enjoy and therefore find motivating
long term benefit
Reward is external to the activity
grades, praise, etc.
Competitive Goal Structure
Any student's success means anothers failure
Inflexible grading causes competition
Cooperative Goal Structure
Students will either succeed or fail together
Support for each other in learning
time during which the entire class has an opportunity to learn
-preventing lost time
-minimize time spent on class routine and discipline
number of minutes actually spent learning
-maintain momentum and smoothness
-teach engaging lessons.
questioning strategies that encourage all students to pay attention during lectures and discussions
the degree to which the teacher is aware of and responsive to student behavior at all times
a teacher's ability to respond to behavior problems without interrupting a classroom lesson
Few In number, make sense, fair, clear, taught, involve students.
F N M S F C T I S
Principle of Least Intervention
to deal with routine misbehavior with Disciplinary Actions that:
do not interrupt the flow of the lesson
Prevention, Nonverbal, Praise Correct Behavior, Praise Other Students, Verbal, Repeated, C
P N P C B P O S V R C
Teacher Attention Solutions
1. Catch them being Good
2. Ignore Misbehavior when Possible
Peer Attention Solutions
1. Remove Offender from Class
2. Use group contingencies
Release from Unpleasant States of Activities Solutions
1. Engaging and Interesting Lessons
2. Involving Students in Lessons
3. Cooperative Learning
4. Materials that are challenging, but not overwhelming
parents give reward as needs
-gives more potent rewards
-strengthens relationship between parents and school
-easy to administer
-keeps parents informed
rewards/punishments given to a class as a whole for adhering to/violating rules of conduct
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