Effects of Early Stimulation & Deprivation If a reflex last longer then suppose to than could have possible neurologic problems. Can this order be infinite ? Sensitive/ Critical Period A span of time during which a developing organism is particularly susceptible to the influence of an even, stimulus, or mitigating factor For enviorment stimulation to be effective, the organism must have achieved a state of readiness There is a specific time limit It depends on the skill performed to know the time limit The effects of stimulation during critical period create permanent and durable imprint For instance: In a child who learned a skill then did it many time, later tried again and could do it again; like riding a bike and skating Critical periods for all aspects of human behavior Development of walking Balance, ability to use feedback information, coordination, Strength, Cognitive function Proprioception, vision Enviornment The environment in which a child is placed can facilitate or delay motor development Stimulation Ex? Speech, surrounding the child with toys and hugs to be social. Deprivation Ex? Stimulated Environments Programs to optimize early motor development No Programming (Letting them learn how to do something) Does not emphasize practice of specific future motor skills Ex? Why do this? So the child can learn to do it when they are ready to do the movement. Programming (Practice specific times of movements or skills) Parent takes an active roll in moving babe Ex? Why do this? So the adult can help when the child is struggling and cant do something. Disadvantages No research that indicates any long-term benefit to normal infants. Young children more susceptible to injury Ex. Swimming with the baby, water can be dangerous or walkers can be dangerous if there are stairs. More stimulation is not always better Harmful if type and intensity are not individualized Advice Create a stimulating home environment that may facilitate the child?s natural development Provide a safe, nurturing, and minimally structured play environment for infant Ex? Box, forts out of blankets and couches, Experiments of Stimulated Environments Child rearing practices in Kenya- Super (1976) Methods: Motor skills (sitting, walking) were practiced by caretakers as a course of daily routine Results: Achieve 1 mos. Earlier than American infancts No advance in skills which are not taught or practiced Conclusion: the average age of attainment can be influenced by the environment Walker Use ? Burrows and Griffiths (2002) review No positive effect of walker use on the onset/development of walking They prevent the child from seeing their legs and lower body McGraw Twin Study ? Jimmy and Johnny (1935) Investigated directly the effects of early stimulation on motor development Method: 21 days ? 22 mos. Johnny toys and considerable stimulation, practice experience in a wariety of movement activites Jimmy few toys and minimal motor stimulation Found he was less developed than johnny At certain periods tested on selected movement activities Can you rely on this test? No because kids develop at different times even twins Results: Readiness (minimum char. Present) Individual is prepared, or ready to acquire a particular behavior Sufficient information and ability have accumulated The necessary physical char. Have been attained The child is motivated Deprived Enviornments Less than optimal environments which affect normal development Experiments: Hopi Indiams? cradleboards ? dennis (1930) Methods: 1 mos. To 1 year swaddle and tied to a board Arms were extended at sides allowing only a slight bend Results?? Experiments of deprived environments Deprivation Dwarfism Emotional disturbance that is conveyed by hormones to centers that control the secretion of the growth hormone Situations: Long- term hospitalization results in listless, apath, and depression Results Fail to gain wt. develop respiratory infections, and fever Orphan study (Gardner, 1972) Method: 1 stern and uncaring, 1 cheerful and loving Results: Monkeys (Suomi & Harlow) 1978 Method: Isolated for 3, 6, 12 mos. Results: With 3 months-Social nature was effected but with time it re appeared With 6 months- Was badly effected couldn?t socialize however it helped them to talk to other monkeys that are 3 months baby monkeys. Because of less aggressive environment. 12 months- Catch- up Remarkable power a human displays to stabilze and return to a predetermined behavior or growth pattern Evidence that the human body is capable of acquiring
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