Elizabethan Poor Law of 1601-Parents legally liable 4 children n vis versa. Beggars put 2 death. 3 categories 4 dependents: children, able body n impotent. Kids given apprentice, able body work n ?worthy? poor got aide either indoor-institution or outdoor-in home.Poverty Threshold n absolute poverty- gov. official calc. poverty only use $ 2 satisfy min living need. Poverty Guidelines- used 2 determine who qualifies 4 what. Prob w/ cing poverty as deprivation(poverty equation)-not account 4 location. Family assets n status of family members (college, retired, ect) Relative poverty/deprivation-ppl think they r poor b/c they have less than most Americans, believe they r entitled 2 more. Absolute measure- poverty threshold used by gov 2 determine # of poor ppl in country. Whites r poorer than blacks bt black experience poverty is 3x greater. Historic In4: hospitality 2 strangers as a virtue by primitive. Buddhism- love n charity. Jews-teach to give 2 needy n not receive. Christians-tradition of good deeds from Old test. Poverty is not a crime. Black Death 1349 -bubonic plague killed 1/3 or England?s pop. Produced suffering n hardship. Corruption of church, break down of economy= increase in unemployment, poverty n beggars. statute of laborers-edward 3-fix min. wage, travel restriction on unemployed person-jobless work 4 job willing 2 hire. Able body must work-1531 parliament passed law 2 punish beggars-1572parliament taxed all citizens 2 help poor. Colonial Poor Laws-poverty not a flaw on society. Public responsible 2 car 4 those who r worthy poor via taxes. Elz poor law. Each person in town car poor person 4 one part of yr. ?warn away? new ppl who show up in town as burned. Mental ill lived w/ family or institutionalized. Deserving and undeserving Almshouses: public institutions 4 poor. RATIONAL APPROCH OF POLICY MAKING CAN BE CHARACTERIZED AS MAKING DECISSIONS BY USING FACTS, COMPARISONS AND COST BENEFITS. POLITICAL APPROCH IS DIFFERENT BECAUSE IT IS BASICALLY DONE ON PEOPLES IDEAS, LOOK AT IT BASED ON GOV. Freeman?s bureau: set up during civil war 3 aid 4 freed slaves, gave food, shelter, work, edu, ect. N 4 whites. 13th amendment: abolish slavery 14th amendment: ppl born in us r citizens, equal rights, protection under law 15th amendment: allowed afro n white men 2 vote. 19th amendment: women right 2 vote. Social Darwinism/ Herbert spencer: natural selection, survival of fittest/creator of this idea. Mary Richmond; 1st settlement house creator, mom of s.w. Income deficient=poverty gap Institutional discrimination-discrimination practiced in school, cops, n other org. 2 serve as gate keeper in society. Policy: principles, guidelines that serve the purpose 2 max uniformity in making choices. Public policy: universal Social Policy: interactive political issues/process. Anything gov chooses 2 do or not do that affects the quality of life of its ppl. Policy research: a legislative process that requires indentifying the target group of who will benefit from the program. Target group: ppl who will benefit from program. Non-target group: groups other then poor who will get spillover effect. Means tested/public assistance: you must b poor enough, TANF, food stamps, medical care Entitlement programs/social insurance: unemployment insurance, workman?s comp, Medicare. Income maintenance programs: public assistance (gov help) and social insurance (must have worked) deprivation: not enough food, no home, clothes, medical care. In-kind benefits: no cash benefits, food stamps, school lunches, ect. METHODS OF POLICY PRACTICE IS LEGISLATION ADVOCACY (PROMOTE/INFLUENCE) REFORM THROUGH LITIGATION (USE OF COURTS) SOCIAL ACTION (ACCURE RESOURCES) SOCIAL POLICY ANALYSIS (WHO WILL COVER IT, WHO WILL PROVIDE IT, FINACE IT, N FORM OF DELIVERY) Poverty gap: the amount of $ it would take to come from where they r 2 the above poverty. Structural Marxist: poverty is not an accident, 2 b rich som1 must b poor 1676 FIRST LAW FOR THE TREATMENT OF THE MENTALY ILL. Redlining: block off areas so some races can?t live there. Yates Report: 1st comprehensive survey of poor relief in U.S. Social services: provide care, counseling, edu, ect. Comprehensive Rationality: look at everything. All choices. Bounded Rationality: recognizes the practical limits to complete rationality Family support act of 1988: states adopted the simple civil process 4 voluntary acknowledging paternity, accept kid at birth. Equal pay act of 1963: all employers 2 compensate workers with equal pay. 6 poverty theories: Poverty as deprivation(food, shelter clothes, ect.) poverty as inequality (distribution of income) Poverty as lack of human capital (no knowledge, skills) Poverty as culture (believes poor people are just lazy) poverty as exploitation (some1 must always b poor)poverty as structure(discrimination) Political approach=political ideologies Voucher and in-kind means no cash principle of less eligibility means who gets what program and we want low amounts of people on it. ON GRAPH 3 OF POVERTY PER MILLION ON TOP AND POVERTY RATE ON BOTTOM. 1861 is health insurance NASW in 1979 adopts SW code of ethics Social insurance: designed 2 help prevent poverty W-2 IS NOT DESIGNED 2 GET U OUT OF POERVTY IT IS 2 KEEP U AFLOAT! Office of management and budget prepares the federal budget Dual awareness: direct service and social welfare policy social welfare policy activities of gov or gov responses Income maintenance- stabilizing some1s income. Settlement laws-2 receive benefits u have 2 have residency. Family relations-women cant own land, must b married or blongs 2 father
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