A substance which releases hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. Acids have a pH of under 7 and the more acidic a substance is the less pH it has.
A substance which releases hydroxide ions when dissolved in water. Basic substances have a pH of over 7 and the more basic a substance is the higher pH it has.
A digestive enzyme found in saliva of the mouth. This enzyme helps to break down large carbohydrates such as starch.
A ball of food that moves down the Esophagus during peristalsis.
A lipid that helps build and maintain the cell membrane of animal cells.
Digestion is the mechanical and chemical breakdown of food into their smallest parts so the body can use them to build and nourish cells and to provide energy.
It is the outermost extraembryonic membrane and in humans it forms part of the placenta. In birds and reptiles, the chorion keeps fluids inside of the cell and allows oxygen to enter the egg.
During pregnancy the cervix closes to keep the fetus in the uterus until labor.
A gelatinous fluid which contains the organelles inside of a cell. This is also the site of glycolysis and fermentation in a cell.
Cell structures which carry DNA and are copied from generation to generation in cells.
An extraembryonic membrane that surround the developing embryo and contains amniotic fluid inside. This clear and watery fluid is used as a shock absorber so the embryo is protected from physical damage.
Movement of small and non polar molecules in and out of the cell membrane along the concentration gradient
Movement of substances from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration in a cell.
Organisms that do not require food to survive. They bring in organic compounds for production of energy.
Nitrogen containing polysaccharide which forms the exoskeleton of organisms such as lobster and shrimp. It also forms the cell wall for some fungi.
Organelles which helps to form spindle fibers during cell division.
Outer membrane of the cell which regulates what enters and what exits the cell.
An organelle composed of fibers and is only present in plants. This organelle is made of the carbohydrate cellulose and protects the plant cell.
Helps to identify chemical signals wanting to enter the cell. This part of the cell membrane is also considered an "ID Toy" since it defines the cells characteristics.
Helps a substrate fit onto an enzyme if the substrate can not fit on the enzyme alone.
This is recently broken open follicle in the ovary of a female. It secretes progesterone to prevent the pituitary gland from secreting FSH and LH until the next menstrual cycle. It also secretes estrogen to build up the endometrium.
Specific site where a substrate binds to an enzyme.
Energy rich molecule which when broken is used to carry out cellular activities.
Sent to the mitochondrion to become ATP.
It contains one phosphate less than ATP.
Has a lower amount of energy than ATP.
Enzyme which turns ADP into ATP by allowing H+ ions back into the matrix of the mitochondria through channels.
Primary muscle for breathing which contracts for inhalation and relaxes for exhalation.
Occurs during glycolysis where no oxygen is required.
Occurs during the Krebs cycle and the Electron Transport Chain where oxygen is required.
Occurs during meiosis, specifically prophase where segments of homologous chromosomes exchange. Crossing over is also known as synapsis.
A body cell that contains 2n the amount of chromosomes. In humans a normal body cell contains 46 chromosomes.
A nerve impulse produced from a stimulus that reaches at least threshold. It causes a temporary reverse in electrical charges throughout the axon.
These plants prevent themselves from performing cellular respiration because they send CO2 to specialized cells that contain rubsico with small amounts of oxygen.
These plants are found in tropical areas
These plants prevent themselves from performing cellular respiration because they store CO2 as an acid over night for later use when the sun comes out.
These plants are usually found in places such as the desert or salt marshes.
The gland located on top of the kidney which secretes adrenaline into the blood as a response to "fight or flight". This gland helps to regulate salt balance throughout the body.
Anti-diuretic Hormone (ADH)
The hormone which prevents the body from losing to much water through urine or sweat by allowing the kidneys to reabsorb water into the blood.
There are two types of B-cells:
Plasma- White blood cells that produce antibodies which help to react with pathogens.
Memory- White blood cells that remain as memory cells in case the body encounters this pathogen again.
The hormone which decreases the amount of calcium in the blood by storing it into bones and muscle.
Glycoprotein used for identification of a cell.
A protein which is produced by B-cells that react specifically with a foreign antigen.
Blood vessel which carries oxygenated blood away from the heart and to body cells. They are thick walled and elastic, which means they can withstand blood released from the heart at a high pressure.
This is when water is removed from two molecules and a covalent bond is formed between them. It is specifically building bigger molecules from smaller pieces while removing one water molecule.
A monomer that when several of them bond, proteins form.
Tips of tubes in the lungs that take oxygen from the air and release it into the capillaries and take carbon dioxide from the capillaries and release it into the air.
A fluid that is secreted by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and aids in the emulsification, digestion, and absorption of fats.
Organelle present only in plants and is the place where photosynthesis occurs. The main job of this organelle is to convert inorganic compounds into organic compounds.
The aorta is the largest artery in the body which supplies oxygenated blood to the head and neck, the arms, the major organs in the chest and abdomen, and the legs.
Turning the nerve cell positive as a result of an impulse.
The durable outer layer of cells which provide a protective outer covering for the eye. This layer helps to focus light through the pupil.
A structural polysaccharide that forms the plant's cell wall
The division of one cell into two cells, each with with identical nuclei.
Microscopic blood vessels that are only one cell thick and allow for exchange of materials between blood and body cells through diffusion.
A cup-shaped structure around the glomerulus of a nephron in the kidney. It works like a filter since it removes organic wastes, excess inorganic salts, and water.
Part of the neuron that receives nerve impulses from other neurons and transmits them to the cell body.
Cell structure that joins two sister chromatids of a chromosome.
Transport protein specifically used during passive transport. It allows substances to move in and out of the cell from an area of a high concentration to an area of a low concentration.
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