Sociology 101 Notes Sociological Imagination: The ability to see the impact of social forces on private lives; coined by C. Wright Mills in 1959. Historical era, religion, gender, environment, skin color, social economic status, culture, and family all affect the way we are. Things listed above are all vital. We study sociology by using theories Different theories represent their own way of understanding society They help us focus our understanding of society They help us organize our thoughts about doing research Research is about collecting “hard data” or facts that help us understand how and why society is the way it is Sociological theories Macro theories Structural-Functional paradigm Social-Conflict paradigm Micro theory Symbolic-Interaction paradigm Global theories Modernization theory World System theory To see definitions of each theory, check blackboard! -Structural Functionalism: -Family, Church, Banks, University, Government, Workforce, Schools, Meritocracy: All these “pieces of the mobile” affect people. -All about the “in groups” and “out-groups”. i.e. rich people and poor people, ASU and U of A , etc… -Social Conflict Theory Proletariat Inequality Exploitation Revolution Bourgeoisie Rich People Struggle in the Middle Poor People -Symbolic-Interaction Paradigm Community, Family, peer Groups and school become your social reality and they directly affect who you are. What is culture? Culture is a shared way of life… US vs. japan Non-Material Culture: Values, beliefs, behavior, ideology that constitute a people’s way of life Material Culture: Material Objects Culture Shock…an inability to “read” the meaning of new surroundings and symbols -Symbols and their particular meaning to people sharing a culture : Nation=political entity Society=people interact in a defined territory and share culture. Language=a system of symbols allowing people to communicate Cultural Transmission=one generation passes culture to the next -Oral cultural tradition began about 5,000 years ago -Sapir-Whorf thesis=the cultural lens of language -Language shapes but also confines the way we perceive reality -Euphemism and political correctness. EVERYTHING SHE TALKS ABOUT IS ON BLACKBOARD IN THE NOTES!!! Questions on Exam: How the theories apply to “Merchants of Cool” KNOW KARL MARX MODEL! Max weber is probably the most famous sociologist. Freud’s Concept of Self: Superego: by age 5, you are socialized and know right from wrong. Ego: rational self that evolves through life. Mediator between superego and Id Id: innate desire that contains libido (life instinct) and thanatoa (death instinct) There is always conflict between Id and Superego When unable to resolve conflict. Ego develops unconscious defense mechanisms Examples: repression, regression, introjection Mead’s Model The social Self has an inner self, an “I”, that nobody knows about but you. It also has a Me which is the image that everyone sees. Society is called the “generalized other,” and they tell you everything that is acceptable and standard. Role conflict is between two achieved statuses Role strain is a conflict between one status, but two roles. Know about Goffman! Life is like playing theater, and everyone is an actor/actress. 40 questions, scantron, need #2 pencil, student ID. Test Review: -What is culture? Subcultures, main cultures, i.e. teenagers are subcultures, counter culture (thieves, criminals, weed smokers…) Culture is a shared way of life. Subcultures=cultural patterns that set apart some segment of a society’s population. -Symbolic interaction theory: what does one think about oneself? Society is the product of the everyday interactions of individuals People try to manage how people perceive them Humans have the power to transform social reality -Structural-Functionalism: Sudden Social Change is potentially harmful. Everyone performs their required role in society. They are all different, but all necessary. -Conflict Theory (aka economic determinism): inequality, exploitation, competition, dialecticism, -Concept Theory: -Max Weber’s Model: -Self-Concept Theory: -Culture lag; When technology moves faster than our morals and values. i.e. stem cell research is something we can do, but the morals implied with it are not up to par with the technology. -C. Wright Mills: we are the way we are because of the trends in society. This is called sociological imagination. i.e. the increase in divorce rates -Goffman: no such thing as an individual, we’re all actors that play a role according to how we were raised. If you don’t play your roll right, then you have to be re-socialized (i.e. the army, jail). Your play your role according to the Norms of society. -Folk-Ways: Something we have to do to uphold the standards of society -What is socialization? What occurs in primary groups and institutions -Structural Functionalism: Dulkine? -Sigmund Freud: Socialized in the Super-Ego -Socio-biology: When you believe that biology is the basis for your behavior and actions -Mead: talks about socialization. The overhead or diagram that says Triadic Matrix next to it Me: The image everyone else sees, it is how you’ve been socialized I: This is the unique inner self -Karl Marx: Conflict Theory -Ascribed status: something your born into and cannot get out of. i.e. gender or race -Achieved status something you achieve: i.e. bachelors degree, gold medalist etc… -Kuli?, The Looking Glass Self -Ethnocentrism, and cultural relativism -Role conflict and Role Strain Role Conflict is the right answer to a question. -Who coined the term sociology? Auguste Comte. Sociology 101 Notes: (After 1st test) -Social Group=2 or more people interacting with eachother i.e family -Category=categories of people have same status, otherwise strangers -Crowd= temporary cluster of individuals who may not interact with eachother Groups -The smallest social group is called a DYAD – Unsstable -A Reference group serves as a point of reference in making decisions i.e. jocks,brains, surfers -Ingroup=Primary group -Outgroup=A competitive and opposition group Primary Groups (Symbolic Interaction Theory) -Family and Peer groups have a high degree of cohesion and a high degree of social control. It is based on fear of rejection, convergence of opinions, and expressive leadership. Secondary Groups (Structural Functional and Conflict Theory) -Work Groups, club membership, the majority rules, which reduces cohesion. There is instrumental leadership Geographical Orientation of Groups and Trends -Rural-Primary groups; everyone knows their neighbors -Urban- secondary; No one knows each other -Large groups turn inward, heterogeneous groups turn outward, -Physical boundaries foster social boundaries Group Conformity -Shapes human behavior -Milgram’s research: -Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison Study: Network is a web of people with impersonal social ties –community networking Bureaucracy -Specialization, Hierarchy of Offices, Rules and Regulations, Technical Competence, Impersonality, Formal written communication Choice of making decisions in a bureaucracy -Risky shifts-Conflict Theory -Tame Shifts-S.F. Theory -Group Think-conforming by adopting a narrow view -Best Decisions-Minority group influence -Majority group-Civil Rights Movement Problems with Bureaucracy -Alienation, Ritualism and inefficiency, Iron Cage(Very inflexible and hard to change), Oligarchy – rule of many by the few Social Stratification: When humans were hunters and gatherers, they were equal. Ass societies have become more complex, social stratification developed. Shaman, Warrior, Hunter, Farmer etc…Different jobs, so specialization. Ranking of People: Ranking people in a hierarchy system is a universal social fact. Caste Systems and agrarian life -It is dependent on birth – ascribed status Class Systems and Industrial Societies -Contingent on individual achievement- achieved status -Low status consistency Stratification persists over generations Ideology about Stratification: Karl Marx- The Proletariat (Rich) has a false consciousness -To be replaced with the class conscience Max Weber-Class, Status, power -Communist USSR political elites -U.S. economic elites Increase in inequality in the United States -High paying manufacturing jobs shipped off-shore -80 percent of the population works in service jobs -Part-Time and sub contracting jobs -Segmented Labor market -Primary (Doctors, lawyers, engineers, i.e. people making a lot of money) and secondary work force (lower service sector, janitors, waiters etc…) Poverty in the US -Blaming the victim -Structural opportunity -Born into poverty is a handicap Theories on Stratification Structural Functional Theory -Division of labor- Emile Durkheim -Supply and Demand Factor The Davis-Moore Thesis -Unequal distribution of goods motivates people -Great Social mobility -Stratification based on personal merit -Meritocracy Symbolic Interaction Theory -Self-fulfilling prophecy LOOK ON BLACKBOARD FOR THE REST OF NOTES Global Stratification -The richest 20% of the population receives 80% of the income. -The poorest 20% survives on 1% of global income. -The U.S. has 4 percent of the population, and uses 25% of the earth’s resources Terminology After WWII-cold war, politically based 1st World countries=Rich, industrialized countries 2nd World Countries=socialist countries 3rd World Countries=The poorest New Terminology – due to the fall of the USSR -High, Middle and Low income countries Relative Poverty- Poor relative to people in the same country as you. A poor person in the U.S. might be rich in a country in Africa Absolute Poverty…Poor Countries -High Death Rate -Malnutrition -40,000 people die each day to starvation -Millions of kids living in streets -“Urban Cleansing” (Know This) Poverty of Women -Women do most of the work in poor nations -System of traditions and laws subordinate women -Gender inequality strongest in Asia -Female infanticide “normal” Correlates of global poverty -Lack of technology -Population growth – high birth rate -Cultural patterns – patriarchy -Gender inequality Theoretical Analysis Modernization Theory- Structural Functional – 1950s -Global inequality due to culture and technological factors -Protestant work ethic WASPs -North American Amish tradition Rostow’s Stages of Modernization (Power of new ideas, Weberian Ideology) -Traditional stage -Take-off Stage…Protestantism -Technological maturity World System Theory – Conflict Theory -Exploitation of poor nations by rich nations -Colonialism -Neocolonialism and MNCS Three Types of Dependency -Banana Republic – depletion of raw material -Industrial dependency – cheap labor-MNC -Foreign Capital dependency Wallerstein’s capitalist wolrd economy -Core nations and “hollow organizations” CHECK OVERHEADS ONLINE FOR REST OF NOTES! Gender Stratification -Sex refers to the biological distinction between females and males: Females=XX, Males=XY -Gender refers to the sociological distinction between females and males; What it means to be female and male is mostly a social creation Gender Stratification refers to the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege between men and women -Patriarchy-Male Dominance -Matriarchy-Female Dominance Sexism=the belief that one sex is innately superior to the other -Institutional (Understand the three types of Sexism!) -Individual -Symbolic The Cost of Sexism -Masculinity -High-Risk Behavior, competitiveness, and control -Feminism -Sexy, beautiful, seductive, caretaker Peer Group Socialization -Boys engage in Team Sports -Girls promote interpersonal skills -Androgyny (Both male and female characteristics) is accepted Schooling -Boys and Science -Girls and Humanities Mass Media -Seductive, beautiful women…..tough men Look on Blackboard at Notes! Whats on the test: -Sexism-types of sexism (Institutionalism, symbolic, individual) -In-group and Out-groups -Colonialism and Neo-Colonialism -Something about factories in 3rd world countries, and the companies pay the manual labors practically nothing, this is called Neo-Colonialism. -World System Theory is based on Conflict Theory -Modernization Theory is based on structural functionalism theory -Contrasts in pre-industrial society and industrial society -In preindustrial, people lived in rural areas and small communities. -In Industrial, live in huge cities and don’t even know everyone around them. -Who makes a tame shift, and who makes a risk shift (conflict theory)? -What is a network? They are the groups that you interact with or are members of -Hierarchy as far as social standing and social stratification go. -urban cleansing, especially in lower income countries -majority rule=less cohesion -the best decision that is made in a group is a decision that is made when a skeptical minority group is able to influence a powerful majority i.e. civil rights movement -females and males are socialized into complimentary roles -symbolic discrimination and other stuff like that -Situation: your invited to work at the UN. Try and figure out how to bring 3rd world countries up to par with the united states? Most important thing is to have gender equality. Then you can lower the birth rate. Then you can increase technology. -What is the best example of a primary group and secondary group? -Milkman study? The Economy -A social institution that organizes production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. -The economy is measured in GDP – economic output Labor Market Work during Industrialization: -Centralization of work – factories -Manufacturing – Mass Production -Specialization – The Assembly Line: 1 person does 1 specific task -Wage Labor Work in the Post-industrial economy -Decline in agriculture -Decline in manufacturing -Increase in the service sector -Information Technology -Decentralization of Work -Segmented work Force – primary/secondary sectors Global Economy -Industrial Core – Corporations and MNCs -Economic concentration – monopolies Local Economy -Periphery – Small businesses -Formal – petit bourgeoisies -Informal – non-reported wages Sectors of Economy -Primary sector – raw material -Secondary sector – manufacturing -Tertiary Sector – Sell and Give services Economic Systems Capitalism -Private ownership -Personal Profit – Self-Interest -Competition -Laissez-faire Market ideology -High GDP -Income Ratio: 10 to 1 – growing Socialism -Collective ownership -Pursuit of collective goals – economic equality -Government control of the economy -Russia’s “classless” system – based on power of political elites -Lack of motivation partly due to high social control -Low GDP -Income ratio: 5 to 1 Welfare Capitalism -Western Europe and Scandinavia -Government provides for people’s basic needs -High GDP Karl Marx: Socialism did away with economic elites Max Weber: Socialism increased political elitism -Stalin killing 20 million Russians. Deviance -Deviance is socially disapproved behavior -Deviance is socially constructed -People are deviant if others define them so -Yesterday’s deviance is today’s norm. -Deviance is rather normal. Social Control -Self-Control-Internalization -Informal control – significant others -Formal Control – cultural sanctions Biological Theories on Deviance Lombroso (1870s)-Criminals look different Sheldon (1949) – body type as self-fulfilling prophecy Today: Genetic Predisposition Psychological theory on deviance -Freud and the Superego – internalization Sociological Theories Structural-Fucntional Theory (Durkheim) -Deviance affirms cultural norms and values -Deviance promotes social unity -Deviance promotes social change Superego-developed at age 5 (social self) - Praise and Punishment Ego-evolving through life (rational self) - Mediator between superego and id Id-Innate (Instinctual Self) - Libido – life instinct thanatos - death instinct Robert Merton’s Strain Theory (1938) -We conform when we have the means to pursue our goals -We become deviant when we are unable to pursue our goals -4 Deviant Responses -Innovation – unconventional -Ritualism – Overcompensation -Retreatism – Rejection -Rebellion – Change Symbolic Interaction Theory -Deviance is learned by interaction with significant others -Sutherland’s Differential Association Theory (1940) -Behavior tends toward group conformity Howard Becker’s labeling theory (1966) -Deviance is behavior that people label Conflict Theory -Powerful people indentify deviance -Laws reflect the interest of the rich -The rich have power to resist deviant labeling -Laws are unfair – white collar crime -Liazos (1972) Deviance and power: nuts, sluts and perverts are powerless Hirsehi’s Control Theory (1969) -Deviance is normal -Anticipate the consequences of our behavior -Attachment -Commitment -Involvement -Belief Age and Gender variances Medicalization of the deviance theory Religion All Religions share common elements Sacred v. Secular/profane Beliefs about the supernatural Rituals Support Conflict Theory Religion is the opiate of the people Religion serves to separate people Dialectics: secularization of modern societies Max Weber Protestantism and the Spirits of capitalism Religion is a socially constructed phenomena Anthropomorphism of god The many faces of Jesus Race and Ethnicity We construct racial categories to rank people in a hierarchy Race—a category of people sharing biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important Ethnicity—a category of people sharing cultural heritage Minority Group—a category of people that are culturally, economically, and politically disadvantaged Majority Group—“ “ “ “ politically dominant. Patterns of Interaction -Accommodation/pluralism – social parity with resources shared equality -Acculturation—adopt patterns of dominant culture -Anglo-Conformity-White people rule the world -Assimilation – Fully integrate into the majority culture -Exclusion of African Americans and Native Americans Melting Pot vs Salad Bowl – What is the dressing? Prejudice—a rigid, irrational generalization about a category of people Discrimination—treating various categories of people unequally Discrimination goes along with prejudice in a vicious cycle -Personal -Institutional -Symbolic Racism—the belief that one racial category is innately superior or inferior to another Theories of Prejudice Scapegoating Authoritarianism Cultural Theory-Prejudice is embedded in a society’s culture Conflict Theory- Powerful people use prejudice to justify oppression of others Test Review (Theres a review on Friday in Murdock 201) Three types of control -internalized self control=when you yourself think what you’re doing is right -Formal social control=the laws -informal social control=when you do/don’t do a deviant thing because society does not find it acceptable -Easier to adhere to formal social control if we have internalized these laws. -People must believe that the laws are just if they are to adhere to them -Deviance Is relative and is socially constructive. i.e. deviance in the US may be different than deviance in Amsterdam -Deviance is relative to the time, place and the individual -Robert Murton developed the Strain Theory, 1942, it stated that middle and upper class people are not deviant, it is those who are being oppressed by the system that deviate 4 ways to deal with this strain -Innovator-robber, drug dealer, etc… finds ways around system and still prospers -Ritualists-These people just do what they’re told without question -Retreatist-retreats from society, hermits/hippies -Rebels-People who try to change the system i.e. MLK Jr. -In order to get rid deviance in society, everyone has to have enough resources so that they do not feel strained -Symbolic Interaction Theory -They look at people in groups, like families. They would think that deviance is learned from family members and significant others. Once you have learned it you have developed a self-concept of deviance. (Learn Deviance from face to face interaction with others) -Southerland’s Differential Association Theory -This theory states that behavior tends towards group conformity. So, if you come home from school and mom and dad can smell alcohol on your breath, you say, “well everyone else is doing it!” -Follow the group- -Why and When did doobie smoking become illegal? -In 1937!! Right after prohibition ended, weed was illegalized. -What does conflict theory say about deviance? -white collar crimes and not punished as badly as crimes in the streets. Powerful people have lawyers that lower class people don’t have -Race and Ethnicity Chapter -What is racism? -What is discrimination? -What is prejudice? =an attitude, how you think about other people that are different than you -Stereotyping=Way of attributing ideas to people of a certain background -What is a majority and a minority group? -How do different race/ethnic groups coexist with each other? -Accommodation=when they have social parity, and share resources equally -Acculturation=when the minority group comes to the US and they adhere to the white-anglo saxon laws just to fit in. However, they still maintain some of their old traditions. i.e. Hispanics eating Mexican food and celebrating Cinco de Mayo Integration=completely assimilated. 2nd generation immigrants. No accent, born here, etc… Scapegoating=blaming other races for our own problems. i.e. outsourcing, and how the Jewish people in Germany were scapegoated -Karl Marx Superstructure, substructure -superstructure=”The American Dream” -People who believe that everyone can achieve the American dream, blame the poor people, and say it is their fault for failing in society. -Race=transmitted biologically -Ethnicity=Culture i.e. a white person from Africa -Know the types of Discrimination -Institutional=if the institute (mcdonalds) does not hire Danish people -Personal=if the manager at the mcdonalds doesn’t want to hire Danish people -Symbolic=when a person isn’t up front about their discrimination, but uses symbols i.e. voting against allowing legal immigration laws Religion What does secularization mean? -Max Weber – Protestant system and ethics, he said that Protestant system gave birth to Catholicism and Individualism. According to him, religion has a profound impact on social movements and changes in society. Karl Marx – Religion is the opiate of the people. Does not like religion. Different religions just separate people, and more people have been killed in the name of God than anybody else. Politics in Our Society We say that we have Democracy, what does it take to create democracy in a society? What are the key conditions? -Must be a relative large number of middle class We have a pluralistic model of politics that states that there are many different lobbying groups that are controlled by the political machine C. Wright Mills- Conflict Theorist-Says we have a political elite that create all the laws, and the people really do not have very much say in the government Who is most likely to vote? -people with high education, and members of the middle class Why do so few people vote in the united states? -read in the book, because people do not feel that they are represented in the government. That the political machine is corrupt, so they don’t care. Or that two parties is not enough What is the primary, secondary and tertiary sector? Primary=where you get the raw materials Secondary=producing and manufacturing the raw materials Tertiary=servicing and putting things out there for people to buy Formal Economy=when you pay taxes on your earnings Informal Economy=No taxes, like drug money, garage sale etc… Bus boycott in Montgomery was a revolutionary movement Look up the other type of social movements Informative Redemptive Revolutionary ????One more one???? The KKK would be structural functionalists African Americans=Conflict theorists What were some important components that led to the bus boycott? That the blacks were empowered in WW II, Supreme Court decision Brown V. Board of Education, Charismatic leader=MLK Jr. What is propaganda? Why is it that Americans typically are not very likely to get involved with social movements? -What does the mechanization of deviance mean?