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Which components in the climate system generally are the fastest and slowest to respond to external forcings?
What kind of feedback is this: higher CO2 level -warmer climate -smaller ice sheet- more absorbed solar heat in atmosphere
If you have X million atoms of a parent isotope, after 4 half-lives of radioactive decay, how many millions of atoms of the parent isotope will be left?
What are the main group of micro planktons in modern ocean and what are they made of?
What are the isotopic evidences for fossil fuel causing higher and higher atmospheric CO2
Compare the half-live and dating range of C-14 to other isotope system
What are the isotopic evidences for fossil fuel causing higher and higher atmospheric CO2
How do climate models help to distinguish different causes of warming?
What has caused ocean acidification?
What chemical form will CO2 convert to when dissolving in seawater?
How does atmospheric CO2 affect marine organisms making shells?
Did ocean acidification happen in the past? If yes, any example?
Which ocean basin has the largest volume of suboxic water, and why?
Human footprint correlates with recent hypoxic events. What kind of pollution in coastal waters is causing these hypoxic events?
Which geologic period had the most frequent anoxic events?
Leader of the Spanish expedition to Mexico, persuaded the leaders of tlaxcaca to join hum against Mexico
A native nahua woman from the gulf coast of Mexico who figured importantly in the Spanish conquest of Mexico by acting as the translator and advisor to Hernan Cortes, leader of a Spanish expedition.
A protestant religion that followed the teachings of theologian John Calvin that was practiced by European and American Puritans
Name given to the French followers of Calvinism, protestant religion founded by Theologian John Calvin
Modern and old communities of Native Americans in the Southwestern US the first Spanish explorers of the southwest used this term to describe the communities housed in apartment like structures built of stone adobe mud and other materials
Bartolomé las Casas
A priest and former Cuban ecomendero; harsh critic of the abuse of Indians, focused his ire on colonist and conquistadors, but never questioned Spain’s right to rule in the Americas
Skirmishes associated with Eastern North American Indians to average the death of relatives by capturing or killing members of neighboring tribes
A that arose in Europe during the 1500s and denied the authority of the catholic church
The native homeland of the Powhatan People, encompasses all of tidewater, Virginia and parts of the eastern shore
Aka Squanto; Pantuxet men who assisted the pilgrims after their first winter in what is now Massachusetts; important to their survival
Re-conquest; Expansion of western European Christian nations during the 1400s into Muslim settlements on the Iberian Peninsula
Name giben to indian societies of the Mississippi Valley, formed around 700 CE and peaking between 1100 and 1300
· Most famous Mississippian society; about 10,000 people in Cahokia Proper about 30,000 in surrounding villages; located just south of where Missouri and Mississippi rivers meet so they traded often,
o They obtained copper from great lakes, shells from Atlantic coast, ect.
· City ended up collapsing, they demanded more then the region and the people could offer
· As climate cooked and crop yields plummeted
Edict of Nantes
1958 Proclaimation by King Henry IV of France granting rights to Huguenots
Politically motivated, factually exploitative conviction that the Spaniards indiscriminately slaughtered Indians, Tyrannized them and imposed Catholicism on them during their 16th century conquests in the Americas
70 year long conflict between Iroquois and Huron over access to diminishing beaver hunting grounds in todays mid Atlantic
· One of the early English settlers of north America
· Credited with the first successful cultivation of tobacco as an export crop in the colony of Virginia and is known as the husband of Pocahontas, daughter of the chief of the Powhatan Confederacy
The first permanent English Settlement in America, founded in 1607 and located in what is today costal Virginia
· An early form of shareholding company that was used by the British to finance the development of the colonies
Massachusetts Bay Company
· A Business enterprise founded by English puritans and merchants in 1629 that founded the Massachusetts Bay Colony, resulting in a swell of English Immigration to the colonies
Became chief of the Powhatan confederacy when the old chief died
· Due to the marriage of Pocahontas and John Rolfe, there was a growing number of English settlements in the area, making Indians fearful and angry because the settlers were taking over their hunting grounds
· On March 11, 1622, the chief led an attack on the settlements outside Jamestown killing 327 colonists
· The English retaliated soon after, leading towards a bitter cycle of attacks that span over the next 10 years
· They reached peace until Openchacanough led one last rebellion, which killed about 500 colonist, he was soon captured and later murdered in Jamestown.
· In 1646, the Indians were forced to sign a treaty and hand over most of their lands to the English.
· Conflict between the Pequot Indians of the Connecticut river valley and British colonist and their Indian allies
· An uprising of poor white men, free blacks, and some enslaved people led by the English aristocrat Nathanial Bacon that temporarily dive the colonial governor William Berkeley from Jamestown. Participants opposed the governments moderate policy toward local Indians and the concentration of landholding in elite hands
· Governor of Virginia, appointed by King Charles I of England
· Enacted friendly policies towards the Native Americans which led to the revolt of some of the planters which was later called Bacon’s Rebellion
· Puritan Lawyer who led the first settlement in to the Massachusetts Bay Colony
· Coined “City on a hill”
· Began the Providence plantation
· Started the first Baptist church of providence
· Advocated for complete separation of church and state
· Known for the Antinomian controversy in the Massachusetts Bay Colony
o Spiritual malaise gripped the colonists, she brought attention to John Cotton’s spirit centered theology
· Monarchs who ruled the kingdom of England
· Was an English real estate entrepreneur, philosopher, early Quaker and founder of the Province of Pennsylvania, the English North American colony and the future Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. He was an early advocate of democracy and religious freedom, notable for his good relations and successful treaties with the Lenape Native Americans. Under his direction, the city of Philadelphia was planned and developed.
· Economic theory that trade generates wealth and is stimulated by the accumulation of profitable balances, which a government should encourage by means of protectionism.Jean-Baptiste Colbert came up with this concept while working under Louis the 14th
Overthrow of King James II of England and the accession of his daughter Mary and her husband William
· Wampanoag leader who waged King Philip’s war with new England colonists who had encroached on native American territory
King Phillip's War
· Armed conflict between the Native Americas of New England and the English Colonists, it lasted 14 months and destroyed 12 towns. The Native Americans became increasingly dependent on English goods, foods and weapons because of this and the diminishing supply of their product, they lost all bargaining power.
· A religious sect that appealed strongly to men and women at the bottom of the economic ladder. They believed that the Holy Spirit or the "Inner Light" could inspire every soul. Mainstream Christians, by contrast, found any such claim of direct, personal communication to God highly dangerous.
Act of Union
· Two acts of Parliament: the Union with Scotland passed in 1706 and the Union with England Act passed by Scotland in 1707
· Created Great Britatin
Grand Settlement of 1701
· A series of acts which governed commerce between England and its colonies
· North Europe and Colonies
· More hours devoted to work
· Consumption… and dependence
· a financial scheme in 18th-century France that triggered a speculative frenzy and ended in financial collapse. The scheme was engineered by John Law, a Scottish adventurer, economic theorist, and financial wizard who was a friend of the regent, the Duke d’Orléans. In 1716 Law established the Banque Générale, a bank with the authority to issue notes. A year later he established the Compagnie d’Occident (“Company of the West”) and obtained for it exclusive privileges to develop the vast French territories in the Mississippi River valley of North America.
· A series of attacks from 1715-1716 led by Catawba’s, Creeks, and other Indian allies on English trading houses and settlements. Only by enlisting the aid of the Cherokee Indians, and allowing four hundred slaves to bear arms, did the colony crush the uprising.
Queen Anne's War
· War in 1702 between England vs France and Spain
· England wavering policies
· Privateers charted by the English crown
· The impact of queens arms war
o Post Spanish succession period, when Anglo-American sailors and privateers were left unemployed by the end of the war turned en masse to privacy in the Caribbean, along the American sea coast, the west African coast, and the Indian ocean
· England renewed resolve to end piracy, 1,500 pirates captured and killed
· Pious sentiment, especially of exaggerated or affective naturea 17th century religious movement originating in Germany in reaction to formalism and intellectualism and stressing Bible study and personal religious experience
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel
· Was a Church of England missionary organization active in the British Atlantic world in the 18th and 19th centuries. Founded in 1701 by Reverend Thomas Bray and a small group of lay and clerical associates, it sent Anglican clergymen and religious literature to Britain’s colonies, supported schoolmasters and the establishment of new churches, and lobbied for a more expansive place for the Church of England in Britain’s burgeoning empire
Were early 18th century emigrants from the Middle Rhine region of the Holy Roman Empire, including a minority from the Palatinate which gave its name to the entire group. Towards the end of the 17th century and into the 18th, the wealthy region was repeatedly invaded by French troops, which resulted in continuous military requisitions, widespread devastation and famine. The "Poor Palatines" were some 13,000 Germans who came to England between May and November 1709. Their arrival in England, and the inability of the British Government to integrate them, caused a highly politicized debate over the merits of immigration. The English tried to settle them in England, Ireland and the Colonies.
Indian slave trade
· European colonists caused a change in Native American slavery, as they created a new demand market for captives of raids. For decades, the colonies were short of workers. Especially in the southern colonies, initially developed for resource exploitation rather than settlement, colonists purchased or captured Native Americans to be used as forced labor in cultivating tobacco, and, by the eighteenth century, rice, and indigo. To acquire trade goods, Native Americans began selling war captives to whites rather than integrating them into their own societies.
Dominion of New England
· The Dominion of New England occurred in the time period of the 1670's & 1680's. King James II attempts to consolidate all of the New England colonies (that includes: Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island and New Hampshire) into one large colony. By doing so, he's taking away the rights of the people in those colonies, because they no longer have much say in their government. He wants to expand it eventually to include New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey and make them under one rule. King James II tries to tighten his control over the colonies and curve the rights of the people. The significance of this is that the Glorious Revolution puts the end to the Dominion of New England and restores the rights of the people.
The First Great Awakening
The Great Awakening was a series of religious revivals in the North American British Colonies during the 17th and 18th century. During these “awakenings” a great many of colonist found new meaning and comfort in the religions of the day. Preachers make names for themselves, Began in England, Jonathan Edwards
o Known mostly for his famous sermon “Sinners in the Hands of an angry god”
§ Warned people against ignoring religion and its teachings,
Was a Presbyterian minister who preached in Connecticut and Massachusetts
Famous Great Awakening minister, He welcomed congregations up and down the Atlantic Coast. He Brought English colonists to join churches, to find comfort in eternal salvationWell informed speaker
· One of the oldest Protestant denominations
· Revived in Germany in 1727 and brought to Georgia in 1735Sought to create closed economically autonomous, sex segregated communities in which Christian liturgical rituals and piety infused daily life
· A protestant evangelical sect rooted in the 18th century Anglican revival movement that accepted slaves and freed blacks and opposed government intervention in religion
· Slave Rebellion that began in South Carolina, it is the largest slave uprising, also known as Cato’s Rebellion, was led by Cato, he led an armed march from Stono river to Spanish Florida
· In response to the rebellion, South Carolina passed the Negro Act of 1740, which restricted slave assembly, education and movement.
· It established penalties against slave holders harsh treatment of slaves and established a 10 year Moratorium on importing slaves.
· Indians in the Great Lakes region, Illinois Country, and Ohio Country were dissatisfied with British Policies in the Great Lakes region after the conclusion of the French and Indian War in 1763
· Warriors from numerous tribes joined the uprising to drive British soldiers and settlers out of the region.Eight forts were destroyed and hundreds of colonists were killed, the natives were unable to get rid of British presence, but it did force Britain to adjust the laws
· First published African American female poet
· She was sold into slavery and purchased by the Wheatley family where she was taught to read and write
· Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral brought her fame,
War of Jenkins' Ear
· Conflict between Britain and Spain that lasted from 1739 to 1748, the name refers to the severed ear of Robert Jenkins, the captain of a British merchant ship and known smuggler
· A Spanish privateer severed British captain Robert Jenkins's ear in 1731 as punishment for raiding Spanish ships. Jenkins presented the ear to Parliament, and the outraged English public demanded retribution. Throughout the 1730s, diplomatic attempts between England and Spain occurred in Europe and America, but they only served to increase the animosity that led to war in late 1739
French and Indian War
· Also known as the Seven Years War, a conflict between Britain and France and their respective Indian Allies in colonial America. This was largely a conflict between empires for territorial and economic control of the colonies, it was heavily related to trade roots
Treaty of Paris (1763)
· The treaty ending the French and Indian War. The terms of the treaty transformed eastern North America’s political geography. France surrendered North America, swapping Canada for the return of Guadeloupe. France ceded Louisiana to Spain, and Spain traded Florida to the British to regain control Havana. The British Empire claimed almost all of North America east of the Mississippi.
Ohio Company of Virginia
· Land Speculation Company that organized the settlement by Virginians of the Ohio country and to trade with Native Americans. The company had a land grant with Britain and a treaty with Indians, but France also claimed the area and the conflict helped provoke the outbreak of the French and Indian War.
· Prophet of the Lenape Natives, Beginning in 1762, Neolin believed that the native people needed to reject European goods and abandon dependency on foreign settlers in order to return to a more traditional lifestyle. He made arguments against alcohol, materialism, and polygamy. Neolin emphasized that the favor of God in blessing the Indians with game to hunt would be spoiled if they did not forsake their evil collusion with the alien white men. Neolin's most famous follower was Pontiac.
· American lawyer, Author, Statesman and diplomat
· Served as the second president of the US, he is a founding father that was a leader of American Independence from Great Britain
· Promoted strong central government
· After the Boston Massacre he provided successful legal defense of the British soldiers driving by his devotion to the right to counsel and the protection of innocence
· He assisted Thomas Jefferson in drafting the Declaration of Independence in 1776
· Helped Organize the Boston Tea Party, and he signed the US declaration of independence
Sons of Liberty
· Groups of Colonial Protestors originating with the 1765 stamp act, who spread anti-British sentiment between colonies
· An Altercation between occupying British troops and a Boston mob, resulted in the death of 5 colonists, this was a significant incident in the buildup of tensions between Britain and the colonies leading up to the American Revolution
Boston Tea Party
First Continental Congress
· The First Continental Congress was a meeting of delegates from twelve of the thirteen colonies that met on September 5 to October 26, 1774 at Carpenters' Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, early in the American Revolution. It was called in response to "The passage of the Coercive Acts" (also known as Intolerable Acts by the Colonial Americans) by the British Parliament. The Intolerable Acts had punished Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party.
· British Parliamentary act that required many forms of colonial printed materials and products be affixed with revenue stamps, or taxes paid to the British
· 1767, British Parliamentary acts that taxed common goods such in the colonies such as tea and other commodities. The acts represented Britain’s resolve to control and regulate the colonies.
Proclamation of 1763
· An order issued by King George III of England that prohibited settlements beyond a line west of the Appalachians running from the Hudson River south to Florida
Declaration of Independence
· 1776, American revolutionary document that declared that the United States was free and independent of the British Empire and sought international recognition for the United States
Articles of Confederation
· The first written framework for a government of the United States, drafted by congress in effect from 1781 to 1788
· A principle of British and American law where a married woman lost her legal identity as an individual and in which her husband would control her economic resources.
· This law prevented married women from owning property
· A system of government that divides powers between a centralized national administration and state governments
· An armed insurrection by indebted Massachusetts farmers, led by Daniel Shays, to prevent the state government from seizing property
Baron von Steuben
· Military officer in the American Revolutionary war
· Inspector general and major general of the continental army, he also served as George Washington’s Chief of Staff
Battle of Yorktown
· Yorktown VirginiaWas a decisive victory by a combined force of American Continental Army troops led by General George Washington and French Army troops led by the Comte de Rochambeau over a British Army commanded by British lord and Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis. The culmination of the Yorktown campaign, the siege proved to be the last major land battle of the American Revolutionary War in the North American theater, as the surrender by Cornwallis, and the capture of both him and his army, prompted the British government to negotiate an end to the conflict.
· American colonist who remained loyal to the British crown during the American revolutionary War
Treaty of Paris (1783)
· Signed by George III of Britain and USA, ended the American Revolutionary War
· This treaty along with the separate peace treaties between Great Britain and the nations that supported the American cause
· Its territorial provisions were exceedingly generous to the united states in terms of enlarged boundaries
Marquis de Lafayette
· French general who offered assistance to the colonies in their effort for independence, he became George Washington’s right hand man
· Radical British writer who had emigrated and taken up the colonial cause, urged Americans in his popular
· Wrote the Pamphlet Common Sense to declare their independence to guarantee political relations and trade with foreign courts
· Set up by George Washington
· Made by the colonies
· Formed after outbreak of the American Revolutionary War
· It was created to coordinate the military efforts of the 13 colonies in their revolt against British rule. It was supplemented by local militants and troops that remained under control by the individual states
· One of the Founding Fathers of the US
· He wrote two of the most influential pamphlets at the start of the American Revolution
· Responsible for inspiring the Rebels
· His ideas reflected Enlightenment era- rhetoric of transnational human rights
· Chief staff aide to general George Washington, promoted the US constitution
· Founder of the Federalist party, the first voter based political party
· Secretary of State under Washington
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