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Heart muscle differs from skeletal muscle tissue by being able to generate
C. a unified cellular response.
Which of the following factors is the primary governor of the local control of blood flow?
In the days following a tooth cleaning and root canal, a patient has developed an infection of the thin, three-layered membrane that lines the heart and covers the valves. What is this patient's most likely diagnosis?
Which of the following is a nonmodifiable risk factor for the development of primary hypertension?
Which of the following individuals is suffering the effects of acute coronary syndrome (ACS)?
In the arterial-venous circulatory system, pressure is inversely related to:
A large increase in heart rate can cause:
The most important complication of atherosclerosis is _________, which may cause occlusion of small heart vessels.
Because cholesterol is insoluble in plasma, it is mainly carried by the lipoprotein:
A major cause of secondary hyperlipoproteinemia is _______, which increases the production of VLDL and conversion to LDL.
A patient has entered hypovolemic shock after massive blood loss in a car accident. Many of the patient's peripheral blood vessels have consequently collapsed. How does the Laplace law account for this pathophysiologic phenomenon?
Patients with ischemic coronary vessel disease and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are classified as low or high risk for acute myocardial infarction based on characteristics that include significant:
_______________ hypertension is characterized by chronic elevation in blood pressure that results from some other disorder, such as kidney disease.
The ______________ of the vessel walls controls the transfer of molecules across the vascular wall, plays a role in platelet adhesion and blood clotting, and functions in the modulation of blood flow and vascular resistance.
A person eating peanuts starts choking and collapses. His airway obstruction is partially cleared, but he remains hypoxic until he reaches the hospital. The prolonged cell hypoxia caused a cerebral infarction and resulting __________ in the brain.
The parents of a 4-year-old girl have sought care because their daughter has admitted to chewing and swallowing imported toy figurines that have been determined to be made of lead. Which of the following blood tests should the care team prioritize?
Which of the following membrane transport mechanisms requires the greatest amount of energy?
A male patient with a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus is experiencing hyperglycemia because he lacks sufficient insulin to increase the availability of glucose transporters in his cell membranes. Consequently, his cells lack intracellular glucose and it accumulates in his blood. Which of the following processes would best allow glucose to cross his cell membranes?
The patient is found to have liver disease, resulting in the removal of a lobe of his liver. Adaptation to the reduced size of the liver leads to ___________ of the remaining liver cells.
Breakdown and removal of foreign substances and worn-out cell parts are performed by which of the following organelles?
Which of the following aspects of the function of the nucleus is performed by ribosomal RNA (rRNA)?
After several months of trying to conceive, a couple is undergoing fertility testing. Semen analysis indicates that the man's sperm have decreased motility, a finding that is thought to underlie the couple's inability to become pregnant. Which of the following cellular components may be defective within the man's sperm?
Although the basic structure of the cell plasma membrane is formed by a lipid bilayer, most of the specific membrane functions are carried out by:
Which of the following statements is true of skeletal muscle cells?
Which of the following body tissues exhibits the highest rate of turnover and renewal?
The nucleus _________, which is essential for function and survival of the cell.
Injured cells have impaired flow of substances through the cell membrane as a result of:
A farmer's long-term exposure to pesticides has made the cells in his alveoli and bronchial tree susceptible to malignancy. Which of the following processes has taken place in the farmer's lungs?
Paraneoplastic syndromes are manifestations of cancer that often result from:
A lung biopsy and magnetic resonance imaging have confirmed the presence of a benign lung tumor in a patient. Which of the following characteristics are associated with this patient's neoplasm?
A 20-year-old college student has presented to her campus medical clinic for a scheduled Papanicolaou (Pap) smear. The clinician who will interpret the smear will examine cell samples for evidence of:
Unlike the tissue growth that occurs with hypertrophy and hyperplasia, the growth of a malignancy is:
Although clinical manifestations vary with the type of cancer and organs involved, abnormal tumor growth causes general manifestations that include:
Cancerous transformation of a cell requires the activation of:
Although both grading and staging are methods for classifying cancer and selecting a treatment plan, staging is used to determine the:
Genetic screening may be indicated for individuals who have a family history of which of the following neoplasms?
Which of the following processes characterizes an epigenetic contribution to oncogenesis?
The leading cause of death for people with HIV is opportunistic ____________.
Activation of lymphocytes is dependent upon the ________ and ________ of the antigens by macrophages.
The first circulating immunoglobulin to appear in response to a new antigen is:
The “window period” of HIV infection refers to the period of time between infection and:
A serum marker for systemic inflammation, _______, is now considered a major risk factor marker for atherosclerosis, and vascular disease.
Once T helper cells are activated, they secrete ____________ that activate and regulate nearly all of the other cells of the immune system.
Bacteria on a sliver in a boy's finger have initiated an adaptive immune response. The boy's lymphocytes and antibodies recognize immunologically active sites on the bacterial surfaces known as:
HIV-positive persons that display manifestations of clinical Stage 3 disease are considered to have: Students, be aware that the Table 16-2 has an error; check slide 66 of Instructors version from 9/13’; this is an important concept.
Which of the following would participate in the innate immune response to an infectious microorganism?
Mismatched blood transfusion reaction with hemolysis of blood cells is an example of type II, _____ mediated hypersensitivity reaction.
Type III hypersensitivity immune responses can be harmful when immune complex deposits in tissue activate ___________ that can directly damage area tissues.
A patient was diagnosed as HIV positive several years ago. Which of the following blood tests is most clinically useful for determining the stage and severity of her disease?
A patient has recently received a pneumococcal vaccine and the patient's B cells are consequently producing antibodies. Which of the following cells may enhance this production of antibodies?
Adaptive immune responses, also called acquired or specific immunity, are composed of _____________ and their products.
Shortly after being diagnosed with HIV, a patient has begun highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). What is the primary goal of the patient's drug regimen?
During the latent period before antibodies are detected in the humoral immune response, B cells differentiate into ________ cells.
Innate immunity, also called natural or native immunity, consists of mechanisms that respond specifically to:
Acute inflammation is the immediate and early response to an injurious agent and occurs in two phases; the vascular phase and the cellular phase.
Chronic inflammation is self-perpetuating and may last for weeks, months, or even years.
Erythrocytes play a central role in the physiology of inflammation.
Vasoconstriction occurs during the vascular stage of inflammation.
Fever is a pathologic response to bacterial and viral infection with and has no positive outcome on illness.
Active immunity is acquired through immunization or actually having the disease.
T lymphocytes are responsible for humoral immunity.
Adaptive immunity (also called acquired immunity) refers to immunity that is acquired through previous exposure to infectious and other foreign agents.
The thyroid gland plays a central role in the immune response.
Passive immunity represents a type of immunity that is transferred from another source, such as in utero transfer of antibodies from mother to infant.
Patient hospitalized w/a fever & pneumonia of an unknown cause. Microbiology lab lost electricity, so no stains of sputum are available. The patient is on a ventilator and no family, so no history of travel or other exposures obtained. The hospital infection preventionist calls the health department as she suspects a reportable communicable disease. While reporting the patient's vital signs to you, she states that the patient's temp is 103 degrees F, and the pulse is 92, regular rhythm. She has just been admitted, so no fever pattern is available at this time.
By examining her vital signs, what organism do you feel is most likely for this patient's illness?
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