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Alcoholic liver disease manifests in three stages. The intermediate stage, alcoholic hepatitis, is characterized by liver cell:
Kupffer cells function as ______ to remove harmful substances or cells from the portal blood as it moves through the venous sinusoids.
Both prehepatic and posthepatic causes of portal hypertension include the formation of:
The late manifestations of cirrhosis are related to liver failure and:
The patient has right upper quadrant pain caused by acute “choledocholithiasis” (a gallstone in the common bile duct). If the common bile duct becomes obstructed, manifestations will also include:
Individuals with liver disease experience the effects of excess serum ammonia as a result of impairment of the liver's ability to process ammonia. How does the liver process ammonia in healthy individuals?
Antibody testing has confirmed that a man is positive for hepatitis A virus (HAV). Which of the patient's statements suggests that he understands his new diagnosis?
A 16-year-old girl has been admitted to the emergency department after ingesting 20 g of acetaminophen (Tylenol) in a suicide attempt. The care team would recognize that this patient faces a severe risk of:
Which of the following factors accounts for the poor prognosis that typically accompanies a diagnosis of primary hepatocellular cancer?
In addition to being the site of gas exchange, the lungs also:
Lung compliance is a measure of the change in ________that occurs with a change in intrapulmonary pressure.
The respiratory minute volume:
A patient's recent history of emphysema has resulted in the functional loss of many alveoli. Which of the following physiologic functions is the primary role of type II alveoli?
A respiratory therapist has asked a patient to breathe in as deeply as possible during a pulmonary function test. Inspiration is normally the result of which of the following phenomena?
A patient with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is undergoing pulmonary function testing. Which of the following instructions should the technician provide in order to determine the patient's forced vital capacity (FVC)?
Completion of a patient's pulmonary function study has yielded the following data: tidal volume: 500 mL; inspiratory reserve: 3100 mL; expiratory reserve: 1200 mL; residual volume: 1200 mL; functional residual capacity: 2400 mL. What is this patient's inspiratory capacity?
A patient with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia is producing copious secretions that are physically obstructing her airway. Which of the following pathophysiologic processes will impede her ability to cough and clear secretions?
A patient has experienced a bout of coughing after aspirating some of his secretions. The patient's coughing was triggered by which of the following?
The pathogenic capacity of the tubercle bacillus is related to:
Which of the four categories of bronchogenic carcinoma has the greatest association with tobacco smoking and tends to metastasize to the brain?
A nurse who provides weekly care in a homeless shelter has unknowingly inhaled airborne Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria and has subsequently developed latent tuberculosis infection. Which of the following is true of this nurse?
Which of the following is not a common manifestation of lung cancer?
Acute onset bronchial asthma causes wheezing and breathlessness as a result of:
Emphysema is characterized by hyperinflation of the lungs that produces increased:
As a result of hypoxemia and polycythemia, persons with chronic obstructive bronchitis are prone to:
The common results of respiratory failure are hypoxemia and:
A patient with a history of emphysema is experiencing hypoxemia after a taxing physical therapy appointment. Which of the following physiologic phenomena will occur as a consequence of hypoxemia?
Which of the following is most likely to precipitate an asthmatic attack in a child with a diagnosis of extrinsic, or atopic, asthma?
Smooth muscle relaxation and shunting of blood into the sinusoids is mediated by _______ and results in a penile erection.
Men older than age 50 are at high risk for prostatic hypertrophy with complications that include:
The most important factor in the evaluation and treatment of benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) is considered to be:
Cryptorchidism, or undescended testes, is a direct cause of:
Which of the following physiologic processes results from the synthesis and release of testosterone?
Which of the following assessments is most likely to reveal a potential exacerbation in a 70-year-old patient's diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)?
Which of the following statements about screening for prostate cancer is most accurate?
Acute cervicitis is an inflammation of the cervix characterized by:
Carcinoma of the cervix is often considered to be a sexually transmitted disease associated with_____ viral infection.
Pelvic inflammatory disease, an inflammation of the female upper reproductive tract, is caused by:
Although there are no effective screening methods for ovarian cancer, and early symptoms are usually absent, there are high-risk indicators that include:
Women are screened regularly for risk factors and manifestations of breast cancer. High-risk women may have a history of:
A 21-year-old college student has sought care because of the vaginal burning, itching, and redness that have become worse in recent weeks. Which of the clinician's assessment questions is most likely to apply to a diagnosis of vaginitis?
A 29-year-old patient had a Papanicolaou smear performed during her most recent visit to her primary care provider. This diagnostic procedure aims to identify:
Which of the following physiologic processes is caused by estrogens?
Which of the following complaints by middle-aged women should prompt a care provider to rule out the possibility of ovarian cancer?
Which of the following processes is a component of the pathogenesis of proliferative breast lesions without atypia?
A 59-year-old woman with a recent diagnosis of breast cancer has begun a course of hormone therapy. What is the goal of this pharmacologic treatment?
Gonorrhea is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a gram-negative diplococcus, and is characterized by:
As with other ulcerative sexually transmitted infections (STIs), genital herpes (herpes simplex virus type 2, HSV-2) increases the risk of:
While in its dormant state, herpes simplex virus resides and replicates in the:
A serious complication of chlamydial infections in women is:
Of those listed, which is the most likely vaginal infection to be spread through sexual contact?
Which of the following phenomena is thought to underlie the underestimation of STI incidence?
A 22-year-old patient has presented to her primary care provider for her scheduled Pap smear. Abnormal results of this diagnostic test may imply infection with:
Which of the following signs and symptoms is most clearly suggestive of primary genital herpes in a male patient?
Which of the following STIs is most likely to respond to treatment with the antibiotics tetracycline or doxycycline?
Which of the following sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is associated with an increased risk of infertility in women due to asymptomatic infection?
Abnormally high accumulation of bilirubin in the blood causes biliary cirrhosis.
Neurotoxin accumulation is a major factor in the development of hepatic encephalopathy.
A decrease in the serum level of alkaline phosphate is suggestive of liver injury.
The function of the mucociliary blanket that lines the conducting airways is to remove foreign materials.
Intrapleural pressure is always negative in relation to alveolar pressure.
Total airway resistance is contributed primarily by the sum of the large bronchial resistance.
A distinguishing feature of viral influenza is direct contact transmission.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is directly associated with cervical dysplasia.
Symptomatic tertiary syphilis is characterized by necrotic gummas.
Palmar rash is associated with the primary stage of syphilis.
A patient undergoes pulmonary function testing at your clinic, and a baseline FEV1 and FVC are obtained; the FEV1 is less than 65% of expected, and the FEV1/FVC ratio is < 70%. A bronchodilator is then provided, and the FEV1 and FVC are obtained again; the FEV1 improves by only 3% and the FVC does not change. FEV1/FVC remains < 70%.These findings are consistent with:
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