-Extremely large body of air characterized by similar temp. & humidity.
-very cold, dry
Ex: North America, Canada,
Ex: Interior U.S.
Ex: North Pacific
Ex: South Pacific, G.O.M., & South Atlantic
Ex: Southwest U.S.
-Transition zone b/w 2 air masses of different densities
- cold, dry stable air replaces warm, moist unstable air
-clouds of vertical development, thunderstorms
-warm, moist unstable air overrides cold, dry stable air
-horizontal cloud development w/ steady rain
discharge of electricity in mature storms
-cloud to cloud (80%)
-cloud to ground (20%)
explosive expansion of air due to heat from lightning
-sound wave move .2 miles per 2nd & an observer more than 3 miles away probably won't hear thunder
1. Highest winds on the eastern side or storm(wind & speed of storm)
2. Storm surge on northern side of storm: particularly damaging in combination w/ high tide
3. Hurricane spawned tornadoes that form in the outer thunderstorms(small super cell), typically F0-F2
-nearer stars should appear to shift in comparison with further stars throughout our orbit (year)
-Greek “proof” that earth is the center of the universe: Lack of detectable___________
How we can determine some distances
Ptolemy of Alexandria improved the geocentric model by incorporating the retrograde motion in “epicycles”
-Copernicus reconsidered Aristarchus’s heliocentric model with the Sun at the center of the solar system
-Was not a better model because planetary motion was in perfect circles.
Designed instruments of greater accuracy, hired Kepler
Using Tycho’s data, Kepler showed the orbit to be an ellipse
Kepler’s 3 Laws of Planetary Motion
1. Planets move in elliptical orbits with the Sun at one focus of the ellipse
2. The planet will sweep out equal areas in equal time intervals, The closer a planet is to the Sun, the faster it moves
3. The amount of time a planet takes to orbit the Sun is related to its orbit’s size, p2=a3
First person to use the telescope to study the heavens and show the true nature of the solar system:
He made major advances in mathematics, physics, and astronomy and wrote 3 laws of motion that describe motion on Earth and in space.
Gives the universe its structure and controls astronomical motion
-It is a universal force that causes all objects to pull on all other objects everywhere, older astronomers did not connect gravity and astronomical motion
As seen earlier, planets move along curved (elliptical) paths, or orbits. This is due to the external force of gravity
At a sufficiently high speed, an object travels so far that the ground curves out from under it. The object, now in orbit, still experiences the pull of gravity!
We measure mass using Newton’s version of Kepler’s 3rd Law
M1+M2=A3 / P2
is the acceleration a mass undergoes at the surface of an object
To overcome a celestial object’s gravitational force and escape into space, a mass must obtain a critical speed called the ______________
is occupied by a diversity of objects, but shows an underlying order in the dynamics of their movements
is a star whose output is generated by high temperature nuclear reactions in its core. Its large mass (99.9% of the mass of the solar system) holds the objects in our solar system in place
it is our best proxy for other stars because we can easily study it.
Small nuclei stick together to make a bigger one. (Sun, stars) High temperatures enable nuclear ________ to happen in the core by overpowering the repulsion between atoms.
Pluto and similar objects fail to fit into either family because they have inclined orbits and are very small, icy, and have not cleared their own orbits of debris.
are rocky or metallic bodies that orbit in the asteroid belt
are icy bodies that can grow very long tails of gas and dust as they near the Sun and are vaporized by its heat; they orbit in the Kuiper Belt or Oort Cloud
Conservation of Angular Momentum
Small things rotate or revolve faster than big things.
The solar nebula heats up as it collapses (gravitational potential energy is converted into thermal energy).
conservation of energy
Random motions cause the nebula to contract. The nebula heats up as gravity causes it to contract due to
The Moon is between the Earth and sun, casting a shadow on the earth
The Earth is between the Sun and the Moon, casting a shadow on the moon.
The Moon’s gravity pulls harder on near side of Earth than on far side. The magnitude of the tides is dependent upon the phase of the moon.
strong, gravitational forces from sun and moon pull, in the same direction.
-phase is new or full
weak, gravitational forces from sun and moon work against each other,
-phase is first or third quarter
gradually slows Earth’s rotation, the moons rotation, and makes the Moon move farther from Earth.
The moon currently rotates only once during its entire orbit around the earth:
Residual heat from accretion
Convection and Conduction
- Transfer of heat by mass circulation (warm air rises, cool air sinks)
- Most important heat process in the atmosphere*
- The transfer of heat from molecule to molecule within a substance (always warm to cool)
* Least effective heat transfer in the atmosphere
Lightest rock making up the crust
Heavier rock in the mantle
Dense metal in the core
Reverse or thrust fault
is the center of the sun. Nuclear reactions take place here, producing energy.
has the hottest temperature
Weather and Erosion
- Air Pressure *
The total amount of energy stored in any object is capable of doing. ex. Potential: *mass E=MC2* Gravity (gravitational potential Energy)
-Any moving substance possess energy of motion.
ex. Kinetic: *Thermal energy: kinetic energy of particles
-The temperature of the air is a measure of the average kinetic energy of its molecules
- Celsius- Kelvin
0 degrees kelvin, when all particles stop moving
Heat is transferred in the atmosphere by…
- Energy from the sun travels in the form of waves
Removing heat from the atmosphere
water vapor --> ice
the heat energy required to change the state of a substance
H2O (water vapor) - Most abundant*
CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) keeps temp. from fluctuating too much on earth
N2, O2, Ar
the atmosphere selectively absorbs some radiation and transmits others
Earths motions: short term
1. Revolution eliptical path around sun every 365.25 days
2. Rotation counterclockwise on eastward every 24 hours
-angle of the earth and where the sun is in the sky
- when the earth tilts towards the sun in summer, higher solar angles and longer days equate to high temperatures and the opposite happens for winter
- the hemispheres experience the opposite seasons.
Changes in the shape of Earths orbit around the sun.
changes in the orientation of earths axial tilt
total amount of water vapor in the air
amount of water vapor in the air over how much the air can “hold”
- content/capacity } dependent upon temperature
What the air actually feels like (dependent on temp. and humidity)
Dew Point Temperature
- The temp. to which air must be cooled in order for saturation to occur, RH at dew point is 100%
- Objects at the earths surface cool below the atmospheric temperature and water condenses upon them (dew or frost)
How Are clouds formed?
- for water to condense in the atmosphere, it must have something to condense on.
- At about 75% relative humidity, water vapor condenses on aerosols (solid or liquid particles in the atmosphere)
- As large areas of humid air rise from the surface and the water vapor cools and condenses they form clouds.
- the individual drops are too small to fall to the ground.
Type of clouds that develop
Intensity of the precipitation
-At points where major convection cells meet, extremely fast winds @ 10-15 km altitude are created (polar & subtropical)
-can intensify a developing mid-lat cyclone by drawing more warm air upwards from the center
- 60- 90 degrees north
- Polar Easterlies
- 30-60 degrees north
-upper level lows derive energy from horizontal temperature variations and are the most intense at high altitudes
- 0-30 degrees north
- Trade Wind
-fronts w/ no movement
-winds parallel but opposite direction
Ex: Combination of alternating triangle(cold) and circle(warm).
- cold front catches up to & over takes a warm front
-occlude mature mid-latitude cyclone
-Stormy unsettled weather
R in NH
L in SH
-Mid-Latitude cyclone forms & moves along the boundary b/w polar air & warmer southern air(known as polar fronts)
-A stationary front develops along a boundary b/w a warm air mass & a cold air mass
-Winds move in opposite directions parallel to the front
-During later stages, a separate cold & warm front develop. A center of low pressure forms at the junction b/w fronts
-The cold front moves faster than the warm front creating a wave (this happens b/c air moves from high to low pressure)
-The cold front will eventually catch up w/ the warm front, creating an occluded front (closed off)
-The center of low pressure become cut off & a stationary front develops
-60 degrees Polar Jet stream
-30-60 degrees Mid-latitude cyclones or "upper level lows"
-30 degrees subtropical jet stream
-short lived & not usually associated w/ fronts.
Stages: Cumulus, mature (cumulonimbus), dissipating
Large, long-lasting thunderstorm w/ a single rotating updraft (mesocyclone) formed due to shear winds in conjunction with a developing mid-latitude cyclone.
-Based upon the damage created by a storm, not wind speed
-F0 weakest, F5 Strongest
1. Surface convergence trigger (tropical wave), and little to no wind shear.
2. At least 80 degrees F sea surface temperature
-June 1st- Nov 1st
-Typically no greater than 20 degrees latitude N or S
3. Coriolis effect
west northwest, northeast due to influence of the prevailing trade winds
-form preferentially in warm ocean currents
-historically based on location then only female names.
-how: alternation female and male names
-retired (Katrina, Camille)
-At strongest, Cat 5
-made landfall as a cat 3w/ 920 mb pressure and > 20ft storm surge just east of new Orleans on august 29, 2005.
(Special case bonding)
Van Der Waals Bonding
(Special case bonding)
(Special case bonding)
Sedimentary rocks Structures
We estimate star temperature by the color and spectral type.