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-17th - 19th century, Spain and Mexico made land grants to individuals, towns and groups to promote development
~gift of real estate and land of privileges, made by government or authority; way we understand how relationships formed and there is a government process of people from higher up and people on land
common-shared space; common space everyone can use (to hunt, graze, etc.)
~grants are how people get land and natural resources
hispano grazing grant: grant made to individual for grazing livestock; need a lot of land for grazing animals
hispano protective grant: protect existing grants
hispano mining grant
Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo
-Treaty that ended the Mexican American war; the treaty where Mexico ceded 525,000 square miles of its territory to the U.S. in exchange for $15 million dollars. (includes present-day Texas)
*also got promise of ensured safety of preexisting property rights of Mexicans on those lands; individuals and communities living there will have pre-existing rights to that resources—they can do what they had promised to do (hunting, timber, etc)
*Problem is that U.S. failed to honor that promise so many times; that’s why so many problems with groups in NM and government
*all property rights of newly acquired territories protected. But hard to ensure obviously is the issue
late 1800’s a lot of money-making things (name) and what's most money making thing?
-logging, mining, grazing, and biggest money making is land speculation (this is because you need land to graze, and mine etc.); need land to do these things
-Land grants contained the best grazing areas, the best water and timber resources.
-about getting this land that supposedly was protected by grants. land grants strip people of natural resources
~grants created by specific individuals of people with specific cosmology and worldview and agendas
~developers often look at economic benefit of that land (resources)
*new industry of money to be made in land litigation
~in order for people to buy and sell land, need proof of ownership of that land
Issues with determining invalid and valid land grants (difficult task): have to survey on foot and horse, etc.
*1854-1891: when congress created private land claims, more than 35 million acres of New Mexico’s best acres were in “legal limbo” (seemingly belonged to nobody but Native people on land and using land but not in conversation)
Issues NM farmers faced: Lawyers and courts:
-early 1800’s, people of Las Trampas had a bunch of land and also received amount of riverfront property that can be bought and sold (had private property on community property) but also have land grant commons. land was diverse: timber, grazing, rivers, but community also has to cooperate with one another b/c all have access to it (they have a set of practices that work that are sustainable for everyone)
-American courts allowed to buy land but ruled can’t be legally sold from community
*ex: of how the U.S. Government didn't uphold its promise to protect the land grant commons for its inhabitants. (they had ensured to protect rights of people to live & use land in Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo)
*The land of the Las Trampas land grant was eventually sold without the actual owners knowing anything about it until it was too late (David Martinez)
*In 1926, The U.S. Forest obtained the land in exchange for $75,000 worth of standing timber
*saw the commons as the aggregate of a large number -strange interpretation of community land in U.S.
o ex: lecture hall is common land, but different land grants in common one (chair is one)
o One person can sell it if he wants to; can sue rest of us for his share of commons; entire grant can be sold by order of court. Everyone can get money for land but lose all land to court—there is this loophole. Lots of problems with land grants today
-1891 borrowed $1,000 from bank, couldn’t pay it back, and only way to get $ was to sell land. filed for suit of partition to sue everyone else to get money
-summon the defendents to come in court, put it in local paper in English and not Spanish, few could read it. Court assumed they can appoint referee for it, sees how big land is and he does it wrong (how many people there and who owns land)
-court determined that land cannot be partitioned because there were too many different kinds of people and land, the land would be sold at public auction at courthouse in city of NM.
*Your land without your knowledge is being auctioned off to highest bidder (who is not part of that land grant; only to people with a lot of money and sold to $5,000 dollars) and also have to pay the lawyer for his services even though they had no idea that this was happening.
*Las Trampas land timber company went bankrupt, sold to government and now a part of Carson National Forest (it was originally a land grant to 15,000 decendents, they were supposed to be protected under treaty of Guadalupe hidalgo and all because of one man (David Martinez) who had debt of $1,000 to bank)
~you have a lot of families from high elevations that collected dead wood to help them cook but now land under Carson National Forest service that says they have only certain times they can collect and that the spotted owl needs that deadwood.
-That family was there for a long time and now told cant go into forest for wood they need, forest service dictates, & spotted owl case has power and say to keep regular everyday folks out of there (even tho no proof of spotted owl; they have power over the regular people) **historical legacy to resources problems**
-who should be privileged in this conversation?
-Whose rights should count the most?
-are indigenous people using wood sustainably
-an ecologist whose controversial essay inspired predictions that population and industrialization would deplete our natural resources.
-Wrote Tragedy of the Commons in 1968; not everyone agreed with him
-had a very strong opinion about humans and natural resources (not much faith in them; they're selfish)
Main ideas of Tragedy of the Commons:
**States that the individual, as a “rational” user of natural resources, will always behave selfishly, thereby dooming the resource to over-exploitation
-“the human species viewed as a whole is a disaster for the earth”
*“freedom of the commons brings ruins to all”
*we need regulations or else we wouldn’t use commons in a good way
-Response to adam smith’s idea of invisible hand: he believed it didn’t matter; humans up to own design and rational behavior would ruin the commons (didn’t agree with smith)
-if you didn’t regulate individual, they’d use it up all the resources (against commons)
~legal inheritance is unjust because it is “biological.”
o “an idiot can inherit a trust fund”
-The effect of overgrazing is shared by all herders, but the benefit of the extra sheep goes to the sole owner of the sheep.
-government control and technology won’t help
-support private property
-humans living on frontier weren’t concerned
-difficulty of legislating behavior; you cant legislate people doing the best things
Tragedy of the Commons? Examples of National Parks, Pollution, and Population
·National Parks: Since parks are open to all without limits, the parks are doomed to be overused and overexploited.
o parks are limited and population growth is unlimited
·Pollution: a human being finds that his or her share of the cost of waste he or she creates is less that the cost of purifying said wastes.
·Population: tragedy occurs when we couple the freedom to “breed” with equal rights to the commons.
-Open Access: free and open to all
-Private Property: an individual or corporation can exclude others from access (way of regulation b/c can decide)
-Communal Property: resource is held by a community of users who can exclude and include others and regulate use
o Ex: India and Nepal (ex: people have forest and community decides who can use it and how; they need it for long haul and make good choices by limiting usage of resource over time)
-State Property or Governance: the government controls access and use
*Self-regulating capabilities of individuals
*Users can have potential to act collectively
*Individual interest can be constrained by institutional arrangements & social pressure (i.e. not wanting to be ostracized)
-“although tragedies have undoubtedly occurred, people have self-managed and been sustainable”
-other countries have common pools of resources; they make their own decisions and have government structure (hardin ignored that)
-env. programs have been instituted worldwide
-harding says we look at world same way and not cultural differences (has a universal perspective)
ex: Indians are part of nature and Europeans view themselves separate
*didn’t talk about capitalism and consumerism:
-Harding talks about human beings as a “monolithic group” (we are all the same)
-morality as system sensitive
-national parks without limits
-likes idea of private property but is that about self-interest?
-Do corporations not pollute because they have regulations? He says that if they have that resource, they wont pollute that resource but will use it as see fit
-pollution as a consequence of over population
-population control- who gets to decide?
~legal inheritance and private property: Harding says legal inheritance is unjust because it is “biological.”
Rio Arriba County: 3 points to keep in mind:
-Livestock ranching for Hispanos is more personal than economic (culture, identity, character of land)
-Anyone Anglo or non-Hispanic is considered an outsider (so many outsiders vying for ownership = issue; do so through land grants)
-Land grants and settlement were about mobility and self-sufficiency associated with ranching.
-While clerics, soldiers and farmers could be found in Hispano communities, cattlemen were considered king.
-a large grant given to one person for the establishment of a livestock ranch
-the largest number of land grants made during the last ten years before the Treaty of Guadalupe of Hidalgo
Grants and different traditions: Anglo v. Hispanos
-Anglos: deeds, surveys, and title searches
-Hispanos: narratives and descriptions; Hispano rancher doesn’t have paper work but tells story.
-European-Americans: land as a commodity
if don’t buy and sell it, not being efficient
-Hispanic New Mexicans: repository of history, tradition, family honor and prestige
you’re buying and selling our history, pride, and who we are—which cannot be bought and sold
Alianza Federal de Mercedes. Year, what is it, who led it, goal?
-English: Federal Land Grant Alliance
*slogan: “Justice is our creed and land is our heritage”
*a group led by Reies Tijerina based in New Mexico that sought the return of lands back to the people.
-Goal: they want to be on the land how they want and willing to die for the cause. Fighting for land that was granted to Mexican Americans by the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo
1967 Northern New Mexico land rights rebellion. What happened? Who led it? What happened to leader?
*After five years of protests, marches, burning barns belonging to Anglo ranchers in Rio Arrriba, they raided the Rio Arriba County Courthouse (June 5 1967):
-They were there to free prisoners who were arrested in a land grant dispute and to place the district attorney under citizen's arrest
-Shots fired and 2 people murdered (not Tijerina’s men) National guard and tanks called in.
*Reies Tijerina became the focus of the biggest manhunt in New Mexico’s history.
-Tijerina caught and went to prison
*considers how poor communities of color seem to suffer from the inequitable distribution of environmental burdens.
-challenges us to not only look at environmental issues (putting waste dump somewhere) but also social issues; people are affected/suffering; landscape and resources are impacted
*Development as sustainable socially by providing a living wage and not being racist or sexist
*Development as sustainable ecologically when it meets human needs with minimal impact on the earth
Ganados del Valle
-communal resources is not very an American identity. We focus more on individual and family unit, -sustainable development is necessary for all people of color, especially Latinos who suffer not only from unwise environmental politics but also from growing poverty, cultural denigration, & a lack of political pwr.
-article about a case study in Ganados del Valle, a community development group in northern NM (Rio Arriba County), which seeks to create env. sustainable alternatives to corporate economic practices by combining appropriate resource use, workplaces democracy, and enhancement of the local culture.
-shows: how culturally appropriate, sustainable development might occur in other disenfranchised communities
Poverty in Chama (valley of Rio Arriba County). Economic status of area, what did gov suggest, did it work, what's the locals' solution?
*After the Great Depression, many locals relied on government assistance
*Rio Arriba county is one of the poorest counties in New Mexico.
*Gov. suggest tourism, which provided mixed results -low-wage jobs & greater land speculation
-Solution: Ganados del Valle
*Ganados approached New Mexico Game & Fish in hopes of a partnership that would support sustainable grazing in Wildlife Management Areas (WMA)
*Preservation versus Sustainable development: Many saw the philosophies of environmentalists mired in racism and classism.
“Green Wall” = task force to study the problem and to see if limited grazing proposal could be incorporated into a research project
-NMGDF rejected any plan that included such grazing and prohibit any future grazing on the WMAs (closing previous exploited loopholes)
Green Wall said no bc they’d set a precedent
· Blacks & Whites in the South
· Immigrants in the Northeast (Ellis Island)
· Indians and whites in the west
-people from asia coming form west; Europeans come in Ellis Island
-immigrants from Europe (English, French, Germans) and black moving to west; “New America” about adapting to these immigrants and blacks
New Questions arose about Purity, assimilation & tolerance
~these questions have existed longer in the south, but for the west this is a new thing (took time to move here)
-what is considered pure in humans?
-what does it mean to assimilate? Who does it and what assimilate to?
-who is dominant culture and set of values and practices? Purity?
1854: People v. Hall
*raised the question of whether or not a Chinese person, or Asian, should be allowed to testify against a White person
-CA supreme court justice George Hall in response to Chinese testifying against white man. Already said in law that if you were black or mulatto (mix of black and white) or Indian, cannot testify against whites.
-Reasoned Asians have to follow it too. He said: “because Columbus mistakingly called Indians, bc thought was in India even though thought was in Asia, so Asia also included even though not mentioned in state law at the time”
o American Indians, Mongolians, Asiatic people were seen as “same kind of species”
-became the Slogan undertaken by white laborers in post-gold rush California
-they were facing unemployment and blamed it on Chinese instead of the actual institution
The Chinese __ became a popular political issue in 1879, creating unity among other groups previously antagonistic with each other
-shifts also to racial and socioeconomic tensions
~even amongst Chinese, class issues were among the collective. These groups aren’t homogenous; they’re complicated, class and gender issues amongst them, etc. grouped together
The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882:
*involved a ten year period of limitation on Chinese Immigration, specifically targeting Chinese laborers. This act was not repealed Until 1943.
-not just exclusion from coming in, even if born here, but mobility limited (cant go to and fro US as please)
-said “no native of china, no idiot, or insane person, or criminal, cannot exercise privileges of state”
-it permitted merchants and students. So being a laborer wasn’t okay, but student is. It drew line on race and economic concerns
Difficulties Chinese Faced:
-Chinese immigrants had to borrow $ to come to US.
-Borrowed money from Chinese elite, then put them under control of Chinese merchants. Chinese businessmen taking advantage of them
-Chinese elite view Chinese as: controlled labor; less like slavery and more like indentured servitude
-Do so much to get here, whites give you job, exploit you, not pay much, white workers harass you, you don’t speak their language, cultural difference
-Lots of violence done to Chinese in homes, walking on streets, etc. in CA
-President Cleveland didn’t deal with issue and didn’t put law in place to protect them in streets, instead banish them
-The Chinese would not be assimilated
*Americans coming to the west looking for fortune often found disappointment & needed a scapegoat
~two primary factors for anti orientalism:
o Orientalism refers to depiction and aspects of culture in the west; created by writers, designers and artists who are from Europe and US (not China, India, and Japan). Term diminishes who those people are. Even if romanticize group, also distances you from them, and not respect the depth of that culture properly
o Essentializing a group: simplifying people and not pay attention to complexities; naturalization; stereotypes w/ an essentialized character.
2 points about ant-orientalism:
-Americans coming west face disappointment and blame it on someone
-plenty of scapegoats out west, interesting that not all whites see chinese as alike. Japanese better because “more adaptable and Americanize, whereas chinese won’t and keep culture” (negative that you stick to your values)
Chinese women were stereotyped as __ and ___
Afong Moy: (exotic)
-considered high-class Chinese woman from high class in china; job was sitting in museums and represent Chinese culture.
-She is a live person and is put on display for being “exotic”
Chinese prostitutes set political notions:
-Chinese women in SF were viewed as filthiest. At the time, only 7 Chinese women were in SF & 2 were domestic housekeepers. *So this whole narrative was created on a statistic of 5 women.
-1854 municipal committee in Chinatown: all Chinese women are prostitutes (not even did data); 1866 idea upheld, so act about landlords refusing to rent to Chinese b/c can “turn house into prostitution”
*Assumed that all Asian women coming to the U.S. were doing so for criminal & demoralizing purposes
~In effect, this legislation prevented the entry of most Chinese women.
The idea of the Chinese prostitute threatened what and symbolized what?
The bride-price, a Chinese version of the dowry, created the belief that all types of Chinese marriage was slavery
-all Chinese men were “coolies”
-Chinese laborer also is “enslaved”
The “negroization” of the Chinese on the west coast:
*They came to occupy the lowest ranks in the racial hierarchy ladder
-made Chinese no different than African Americans.
-Drawings of Chinese at time were pictured with African American features. Painting and drawing Chinese with black features to make that point. Chinese overweight image
Asians experienced discrimination on multiple fronts:
Race, Class, Nationality
~Challenging a person’s identity
~Country needs their labor but doesn’t want to give them benefits because that’d mean being a citizen and getting privileges.
~Many Asian people kept strong tie to homeland. Most Asians who came here planned on staying for 3-5 years, make money, and go home, but many ended up staying here and want to bring family here.
~Chinese didn’t assimilate-issues: They don’t pray to our gods; eat and behave differently. Want to get rid of them and they aren’t “real” Americans
~No political power to vote or run for office
Asians engaged primarily in two types of resistance:
Strikes and Lawsuits
~Chinese not just in west but moving around country: South; white plantation owners put blacks with Chinese laborers.
By 1870, there were 2000 Chinese working in Mississippi, Arkansas, & Louisiana
-plantation owners ran place for a long time so didn’t change way did things. Chinese don’t like that; they’re workers and not slaves
-Treated as slaves, the Chinese staged strikes to protest whippings and other harsh treatments and became shrewd negotiators of labor contracts; sued in court
~supporting people in china who were supporting them as well; understood being strategic and alliances
~exclusions, naturalization (wanting to be citizens), and economic discrimination
-90% of cases were about getting into U.S.
~James B. Harvey. What did he do?
-tried to exploit Chinese labor in his steam laundry company on east coast.
-Irish women doing laundry. They often staged strikes or fight back. So businessmen brought in Chinese laborers to keep focus off of Irish immigrant women.
-Fired all white workers and hired Chinese bc think easier. But Chinese men just as demanding and went on strike just as much as Irish women.
-Harvey fired Chinese in 1875, but Chinese learned laundry industry from working here. Joined with other Chinese and within 2 years, 2000 Chinese laundromats in NY.
-in 1898 the supreme court agreed that a person of Chinese descent born on U.S. soil was a U.S. Citizen, giving rise to claims from children in china that they be allowed to come to the U.S.
~Someone born here and Chinese can bring their children over, or under guise that those were their children
~at time, women didn’t have same rights. She’d lose her status if marry Chinese immigrant
Activists in china supported their country men & women in the U.S. by refusing to support American based businesses in china
· In 1905, US boycott organized in Shanghai to protest worker treatment in US.
· workers quit American companies
· protestors prevented American shops from coming in and many American businesses in China were forced to shut down.
· Boycott cost $40 million in trading in that year; protest so successful
· US government demanded China shut down boycott
· Roosevelt says we can’t keep abusing Chinese labor and people
In 1909 and 1919, Japanese & Filipino Workers engaged in strikes in Hawaii in order to demand better wages
-1909 several Japanese workers in Hawaii had a strike that lasted 4 months. Spread form one plantation to another.
-Japanese fight on two fronts:
o white plantation owners and who own business
o Japanese brethren who were above them and made it difficult to fight
-Diversity of groups; just because you are Japanese and part of group, don’t feel the same necessarily.
-Japanese workers organize Filipino workers:
Feb. 1, 1920: Japanese and Filipino workers on strike. The owners evict a bunch from housing. Then these workers had a 77 cent parade.
80% of Chinese Immigrants were detained for months & even years
-More difficult here to get in US: Ellis Island let them go in right away
-Was next to Alcatraz; natural quarantine area. Idea and belief that Asians bring in certain kinds of diseases as well
-175,000 of them came through here.
-Isolated: they left behind family, homeland, and now detained here. It was dirty, crowded. Notorious for investigations; inspectors trip them up over questions.
In the 1860’s, The Chinese Farmer began engaging in small-scale cultivation
-5-20 acre farms, mining regions, valley towns
-Reason they were farming: they provided food for themselves
-Lot of racism against Asians (SF/bay area)
-farm mostly vegetables and fresh fruit
-Asians began leasing larger plots; planted a lot of different crops.
-These Chinese had large plots of land along Sacramento river and Sacramento delta.
By The 1880’s the Chinese were also involved in planting vineyards & digging irrigation ditches
-Worked in citrus groves
-Chinese tenants planting vineyards; didn’t always get paid for that.
-Readings say involved in all kinds of farming (wheat, vegetables)
-out of all agricultural regions in CA, Chinese farmers most numerous in Sacramento river & delta; they were sent here for “reclamation” work (claiming land in particular way; had to be done for farming to take place).
Challenges in the Delta:
o levees built to enclose islands
*Differential soil conditions
o affected crops differently
o farmers growing potatoes had to go field to field
o different fruits have different needs
*Complex social history
~Profitable (soils so fertile; so much and so well; had to work hard for your money)
-risky (islands sinking; now 3/5 the land is at or below sea level)
Almost all the land in the Delta was granted by the Federal Government to the state of California (over 8 million acres)
-When CA became a state in 1850, rest of state became part of public domain (through 4 major acts)
-a lot of confusion about who owns what land.
-confusion of federal government and state.
-Confusion over land titles.
*Is the creation of New Land where there once was water
o upstream mining systems affect on delta systems
Reclamation took place in two stages:
1850-1880 using wheel barrow brigades
-1850’s-1880s: hire Chinese laborers
o hardcore, physical, manual labor; worked in less swampy areas
1879 using the clamshell dredge
o Work done by large land companies
Challenges for the Chinese workers
*Chinese workers were hired through Chinese labor contractors
o Landowner (usually white), pays the head contractor and then they give wages for labor.
o If you had a dishonest contractor, laborers not always getting paid. They always had to deal with head contractor for their money.
*Workdays were long - 5am until 6pm and workers got paid about $1 a day
-Chinese lived in tents they constructed.
White landowners recognized that white men would not have done this work:
*The Chinese were largely responsible for land reclamation in California
-therefore, recognized to farming
1880’s - Santa Clara was an ideal fruit-growing region
-Large white family farms here producing food for region and beyond
-Issue of identity of who the state doesn’t see
1870’s - The Chinese made up 18% of all Farm Laborers in California and 55% were in Santa Clara County
Agricultural work was racialized & gendered
*The Chinese performed work that was considered tedious and menial involving particular crops that were more “suitable” for them
working as cooks, handymen, cut hair, fish, fish for clams; always making money.
Way in which let go of pre-conceived ideas of jobs you looked down upon doing if need to live.
-Problem according to narrative: the more Chinese laborers do these other things (Cutting hair), more seen as feminine and not masculine; but this work does need to get done.
- Relied on Chinese labor; integrity and superiority of white labor.
What is National Hmong-American Farmers?
*A non-profit organization promoting economic well-being among small minority farmers in Fresno County, California
*Activities include: *a training center, technical assistance & supplying small and minority farmers with information & resources; ~work with different ethnic groups; build set of difference bc so many different ethnicities
o preserving culture of farmers, Hmong or otherwise
o agricultural development for self-sufficiency
o health education
o becoming recognized provider of community change
o Power and culture of identity.
Film: Becoming American: The Chinese Experience. Read over notes
Many European Americans believed it was their right and duty to go Westward.
~Economic opportunity; risk your life
~place to be afraid of -> manage and control it
Challenges to moving West:
-Starvation; ~thirst, heat
~Had to do this on foot or in wagon
~Brighams (bad people doing bad things)
~Going over land in a place that is largely unpopulated
~had to get out here but had to wait for provisions (nothing here; no landscape/resources), wait for letters from family, etc.
~government tax for land etc. **build railroad
-Overland across the Rockies
-along the Southern route through Apache and Comanche territory
-by sea through the Strait of Magellan.
~before railroad, only could go through these 3 routes
~you have to want to be here really badly to endure those risks
1862: Central Pacific Railroad and Union Pacific Railroad divided the task of construction.
-congress passed railroad with railroad bonds.
-This is also year of Chinese Exclusion Act
-3 years before Emancipation Proclamation (still slaves in south)
Challenges of building RR:
-cutting a path across the Sierra Nevada
-ramming tunnels through the mountains
~They didn’t have our machinery and did this by hand
-The railroad needed 5000 men, but could only recruit 800 white laborers.
-growing population of Chinese laborers in California.
~Cheap, plentiful, big pool of laborers.
-Hire Chinese when white men rebel; prefer Chinese
~Tension: White men often blamed Chinese if they weren’t being treated or paid well.
~White men found working in mines paid better than railroads. They would take advantage and sign up so they could get there but go to the nearest mining camp. The railroads couldn’t get work they needed.
Initially, Chinese laborers were given “__” jobs because they were seen as too “__”
-An agreement between China and the U.S. governments
-In exchange for “most favored status” in trade, China recognized the right for a Chinese citizen to emigrate/migrate to the U.S.
~for curiosity, trade, or permanent resident
Central Pacific Railroad sent recruiters to China and eventually hired thousands of Chinese laborers.
*became majority of railroad work force.
*Chinese primarily built our railroads
-Spoke negatively, then positively, and then want them excluded.
-To support business, good to have them here
A white laborer got about $30 a day as did the Chinese, but the Chinese were also expected to pay for their own __ and __.
·Room and board ~board = They cooked their own food
~Chinese v. White workers:
**only whites can be allowed to be foremen (rise up in ranks; but not Chinese); can boss Chinese around in this position (motivator)
-saved $5.5 million from hiring Chinese over white laborers
-at peak, 10,000 Chinese men worked railroads. White men upset and Chinese were regarded as better because worked harder.
-So white have to work harder even though paid more
Working on the railroad including clearing forests and blasting through tunnels:
*the Chinese were the only laborers allowed to use nitroglycerin and many died in accidental explosions.
~Allowed to use nitroglycerin b/c of their experience with fire; used technique used in china to create forces around river. Dynamite also made people to die
-to lay down tracks, have to clear forests (chinese, irish, etc did this)
· building railroad, camp always moving as work
· Their machinery was heavy and sometimes have to build a bridge first to get the machinery there
· Hand tools, explosives, and shovels
· *7 inches of tunnel a day
· 1 mile of tunnel = $1 million
Disease was a problem for all workers, but white laborers suffered more because of their poor diets and bathing practices.
-Chinese faired better than white laborers because difference in diet
~White ate potatoes, coffee, rancid butter
~Chinese ate better and didn’t drink alcohol, boiled their water, kept themselves clean by bathing every night (not true for whites)
The Golden Spike:
-Weather: *two of the worst snowstorms in U.S. history swept away whole teams of Chinese workers.
-By the summer of 1868, approximately 4,000 laborers, 2/3 of whom were Chinese, had built the railroad over the Sierras and the plains.
-But Central Pacific Railroad tried to write the Chinese out of its history by excluding them from ceremonies and the famous photo of the Golden Spike.
· *RR CAN’T BE BUILT WITHOUT CHINESE*
· Excluded and not represented
Dangerous and hard work:
More than 500,000 acres of cultivated land needed labor when the Chinese were sent home
-Japanese took 70% of land owned that were given to them as unproductive, and mad it productive
*farming is way Japanese showed their love for the land
*Japanese farmers and agriculture: helped make CA what it is and how look at farming
The Chinese were condemned for their vices while the Japanese were condemned for their virtues
-white wanted Chinese here for labor, but culturally don’t want them here; they wouldn’t assimilate and give up identity (that’s threatening)
-When Japanese arrived here, they were law-abiding. Japanese condemned for virtues: intelligence, honesty, so dangerous. Fucked bc you can’t win. If Japanese do well, that’s a problem
o Japanese superiority seen as threat
o Many voted against Japanese staying in US even if they hadn’t met any Japanese before; not real understanding of who Japanese are
The media played a significant role in the perpetuation of negative Asian stereotypes
*sets public opinion
-whites believed everything about them
-TV, culture, etc. affects how they voted; newspapers hurt public opinion about japan
-this is very contemporary—how groups are portrayed in culture
*not everyone felt the same way—diversity of opinion and some did vote against anti-Japanese
*was used to declare all people of Japanese ancestry excluded from the entire Pacific coast
-authorized internment with “military areas as fusion zones where any can be excluded”; all people of Japanese ancestry placed in internment camp all along coast.
-For many, couldn’t trust Japanese from war
-level of prejudice, bias, and disrespect for Japanese
The ____ was charged with overseeing the continued operation of farms previously owned by the Japanese
Farm Security Administration
-They need the money and food.
-120,000 people had been interned.
-They had to find people to work on that land in their absence and difficulty to find people for this. People were going to get land back when got out of camps
The Japanese evacuees left behind approximately $200 million worth of real, personal and commercial property
Ex: business making antiques and many would destroy them instead of handing them over. They were working hard, doing good work in community,
-Cant walk around freely—looked at not as citizen but someone to be afraid of no matter what age.
January 1, 1945 Internment done: many stayed
-came home to see house had been sold, not money to survive and need to rely on community now.
-Japanese had new alliance with blacks and confined to same neighborhoods.
-discrimination continues with Anti-Japanese rhetoric; not allowed to live certain places
-went on until 1988 when U.S. (Reagan) finally apologizes for what they did to Chinese
Issei Ethnic Economy:
*Japanese immigrants who came to the U.S. prior to WWII developed a shared economy and ethnic solidarity in the face of racial exclusion
-way they identify even as a timeline when arrived here, who they were, what generation apart of
-idea of ethnic solidarity (a shared identity as countrymen and common cultural values; cultural practices) and ethnic enterprise as way to survive
-living conditions: migratory workers didn’t live in stable camp to build community; constantly moving and don’t feel grounded or sense of belonging anywhere.
-Japanese cannery workers were shipped form west coast to Alaska when fishing season over; had to work fast with conveyer belt, smells, working 10-12 hour days; dealt with weather extremes
Labor structure difference between Hawaii and Mainland:
-plantations in Hawaii: direct relationships with workers
-mainland: recruit Japanese, make them work and negotiate conditions and pay; there were in between people negotiating wage etc. not direct relationship
o not only dependent on hoping boss nice, but intermediary too
o also: actual employer at top doesn’t have to feel responsible for labor conditions of Japanese and other people working for them
-The Japanese ethnic economy grew rapidly and included hotels, boarding houses, barber shops & restaurants.
-By 1909, 6,000 Japanese had become farmers. Discuss farming by Japanese and what food is in high demand in late 1800's - early 1900's
-Issei predominately employed as farmers
-Most farmers were farmers from japan
o But geography and weather different so different growth methods, but did well
-late 1800’s-early 1900’s high demand for fresh food because of industrialization; great time for farmers
-with RR came invention of refrigerator car. You can send crops across country so everyone getting it
There were four methods the Japanese used to get land:
o farmer already owns land, want to grow something
o Farmer receives percentage of crop, just need access to someone who has land. He’ll give the person money from his farming, but he’ll make money
o like renting an apartment. You don’t own it but have responsibility over it
o the three systems allowed for Japanese to eventually own their own land; they had to strategize to get that land
~Politicians created “Gentlemn’s agreement”:
-agreement that US will not influence restrictions for access to workers and students, but don’t let anyone else to come over.
-Control people a bit and keep borders open to get Japanese in.
-one thing though: if you come here before and you have children and wives, you can come back in
-410 Japanese women and over 24,000 Japanese men in U.S.
**need picture brides!
*A matchmaker paired a bride & groom using only photographs. Between 1908-1924, thousands of picture brides migrated to the U.S. mainland.
-Select brides from native country from matchmaker. Jap. farmer in U.S. says they want a bride, family picked someone, send him a pic., and ship women off
-Japanese had arrange marriages as rule, so this wasn’t unusual. photography allow sending of photos
-Ones who couldn’t go over because of financial reasons, did their long distance marriages
-by 1925, half of all Japanese men at time farmed
-men mainly only planned only to be there for a short time -> need brides
-Initially, the Japanese believed White resentment was over competition for jobs. But White workers resented their very presence on U.S. soil.
-This resentment was reflected in the American Labor movement's refusal to accept Asian workers.
Ex: Oxnard strike 1903: Joins forces with Mexicans
o Japanese-Mexican Labor Association emerged as powerful to organize farm workers. One of members petition government but American federation of labor union doesn’t want them all working together. Without American labor union support
-1913: A law was passed [in CA] that denied land ownership to the Japanese, curtailing Japanese settlement.
Culture & Identity on the American Landscape:
-Whose view gets priority?
-Who gets ownership?
o Not just the deed, but ownership is historically placed because of identity; what meanings are privileged.
-Whose culture gets to claim identity as central to their cause concerning resource use?
o Whose POV get priority?
o Whose culture has currency?
§ Some have more currency than others in different context, places.
*Spanish for the “Blood of Christ”
-Mountains are a huge resource (water, timber, ecology)
*home to various kinds of wildlife and is comprised of 9-10 discrete ecological zones
*Historically, diverse cultures have populated this region:
o Apaches & Comanches,
o ~ indians have lived here for 2,000 years; they shared land with Spaniards
*Land & Meaning
-Pueblo Indians: land is sacred; cosmology that the world is living
-Hispanos: land as mother and protector of their lives
-Anglo-Americans: land as a commodity
Founded in 1754, Las Truchas was the “quintessential Hispanic village”:
*rugged landscape and resilient people
*began as a Spanish land grant in 1754
*Truchas, at 8400 feet has a population of 950
-there is also the idea of identity and myth and there is a myth with how the tough people of Truchas were able to overcome the Comanches using either fire or chilly peppers to “smoke them out”
-there is the identity of place that related to the identity of the people because they have this rugged landscape that causes a certain culture
The colony of Las Truchas was continually under assault from the __ who were supplied guns by French, British and American traders.
-The Spanish were challenged by the French
o tried to settle area using natives, they armed them with guns
*works with the Forest Service for forest-thinning & restoration projects that provide firewood and other products.
-outspoken person for the tradition, culture and access to federal forests; communal interests
1995 A federal Judge halted logging on [Carson] national forest land to save the:
1995 A federal Judge halted logging on national forest land to save the Mexican Spotted Owl. Stakeholders?
The Forest Service (Carson National Forest)
lumber mills and timber industry halted to protect the Mexican Spotted Owl that was endangered; people upset because logging was the economy
Rural Residents: *the owl has become a symbol for the powerlessness they feel over lost lands that had originally belonged to their ancestors; -people who live there aren’t part of process to discuss land management; -US government did not keep the deal with the ancestors of the people
Spotted Owl: They searched for this animal but realized that it did not even live there: local industry halted due to a narrative that needed to be protected
Asian Americans include:
· Chinese Americans
· Filipino Americans
· Indian Americans
· Vietnamese Americans
· Korean Americans
· Japanese Americans, and others
Old Sugar Mill Plantation, Koloa 1835. Significance and who is William Hooper and what did he believe?
*1835 - First sugar plantation in Hawaii on 980 acres of land
*Started to advance “the progress of civilization”.
*William Hooper believed that:
o *the Chinese worked harder than the native Hawaiian laborers.
A diverse workforce ensured that:
*the planters would retain control over the workers
*keep production costs low
The Asian Perspective (motivation, sexes and type of people coming, plan in U.S.) :
Chinese: escaped harsh economic conditions; most were men, planning to return home after 3-5 years.
Japanese: economic hardship & exorbitant land taxes pushed many to the U.S. & Hawaii; Most were relatively educated young men (& a few women) who hoped to return to their homeland after a few years.
Koreans: wanted to escape political persecution by the Japanese and poverty; Both M & F emigrated to U.S.
Filipino Laborers: Tens of thousands came to Hawaii and the the U.S. Mainland in the early 1900’s; Escaping poverty was the primary motivation
Asian Indians: Only 6400 came to U.S. in 1907; Most were M & most had come b/c they had gone into deep debt in India & were hoping to get their lands back
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