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The unit of. Evolution
The sum total of all. Alleles of. All genes in a population.
Those individuals which produce the most number of viable offspring.
Offspring which can continue to produce in the future.
The proportion of those alleles in the population.
What were GH hardy and G Weinberg investigating
Why do traits in a population seem to be stable.
Hardy Weinberg equation
What does the hardy Weinberg equation show
The genotype frequencies.
What does this other equation show
The allele frequencies.
When solving a hardy Weinberg equation where do you start
5 conditions of hardy Weinberg equilibrium
no natural selection
Changes to the allele and genotype frequencies due to chance events.
types of genetic drift
Founders effect, bottleneck.
When a small group of limited genetic variability begins a new isolated population.
When a population is drastically reduced in numbers due to an event usually a natural disaster.
The addition or subtraction of individuals through immigration or emigration which Chaffee the allele and genotype frequencies.
The addition of an allele through mistakes in DNA replication.
When an individual chooses a mate due to inheritable characteristics
2 types of sexual selection
Intrasexual selection and intersexual selection.
Male to male or female to female competition for access to opposite sex. This usually produces exaggerated secondary sexual characteristics.
Males or females are selected individually by individuals of the opposite sex. Usually produces loud calls or bright colors etc.
When gene pools change in response to the environment.
3 characteristics of natural selection
individual don't evolve (populations evolve)
natural selection works upon the phenotype
natural selection can operate rapidly
resources are limited
populations produce more offspring than the resources can support
individuals have natural genetic variation
some traits are advantageous over others
only the fittest survive to reproduce.
Where man determines what traits are desired.
When natural selection removes individuals from one end of a phenotypic distribution and thus causes a shift in the distribution.
When an allele is lost in a population. This could result in a phenotype being lost.
When natural selection removes individuals from both ends of a phenotypic distribution thus maintaining the same distribution mean.
When natural selection removes individuals from the center of a phenotypic distribution and thus causes the distribution to become bimodal.
When individuals can mate and form viable offspring in nature.
When individuals are crossed and form either viable or inviable offspring.
Crosses possible but offspring sterile
Crosses possible offspring viable but not usually in nature.
Viable offspring but not one species because they live on 2 separate continents.
When wide spread populations evolve to adapt to different habitats over time.
Going from a single species to many species. Often associated with new habitats. Becoming available to colonization.
When speciation occurs without a geographical separation. Often occurs in micro habitats or micro climates.
Having more than two sets of chromosomes.
How do we get polyploidy
Non disjunction during anaphase of meiosis or mitosis
When does auto polyploidy occur
During meiosis or mitosis
Meiotic non disjunction
Fertilization of a diploid egg by a diploid sperm cell
diploid gametes due to complete non disjunction during meiosis.
the auto polyploid can't reproduce with member of the parent species because it has too many chromosomes.
Mitotic non disjunction.
A cell in a diploid organism undergoes complete non disjunction.
tetraploid cell undergoes normal mitosis
this produces a line of tetraploid cells
if the tetraploid line of cell undergoes normal meiosis producing diploid gametes.
What can occur from allopatric and sympatric speciation
2 species can develop even if they have come from the same gene pool.
Different species cross increasing their numbers. This causes infertile hybrids
Process of allopolyploidy
Forms a hybrid which is infertile and then goes through auto polyploidy mitosis.
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