Although their interests are diverse, most psychologists share a common
interest in mental processes and behavior
Too much dopamine is thought to be involved in _____
some psychologists study how the brain and other parts of the nervous system work together to influence behavior. Their focus is on:
The two main parts of the nervous system are:
central and peripheral
Which branch of psychology studies the processes of sensing, perceiving, thinking, and learning?
Looking for the best ways to help people monitor and control their blood pressure through behavioral changes would be the concern of psychologists within which subfield?
One focus of social psychology would be
determining how members of the same fraternity influence each other's behaviors
Tavon wants to better resolve conflicts with his college roommate. When he asks for help, he will probably be referred to a:
The most recent employment surveys suggest that psychologists are least likely to be working in which setting?
_____ are physicians who specialize in psychological disorders
Dr. Jones considers himself a cognitive psychologist. He is probably most interested in
how people process new information
The study of the effects of worry or anxiety on bodily symptoms is likely a focus of ______ psychology?
Early psychologists studied the mind by asking people to describe what they were experiencing when exposed to various stimuli. This procedure was known as
Both structuralism and functionalism emphasized the study of
consciousness and mental processes.
The ability of human beings to adapt to their environments is a central concern in the _____ perspective.
Knowing that you are taking a psychology course, your friend calls to tell you about a dream he recently had. He wants to know what you think his dream means and what it may reveal about his personality. You might encourage your friend to read research from the _____ perspective.
John B. Watson, an advocate of the behavioral perspective, believed that a person’s achievements depend most on:
training or experiences in the environment.
Psychologists who accept the _____ model tend to look for the uniqueness of every individual.
Psychologists who adopt the ______ perspective often compare how humans process information to the way computers operate: information is inputed, saved, and later retrieved.
Whether people can be aware of the causes of their behavior is the focus of which key issue in psychology?
conscious versus unconscious
A student wants to study love between married couples, but he cannot decide whether he should measure visible actions that reflect love or measure the couples’ motives to remain in love. His decision reflects the _____ controversy.
internal versus observable
Your opinion about whether or not people with mental illness should be forced by governmental institutions to seek treatment may depend on your stance on the _____ issue.
free will versus determinism.
Research in psychology begins with
identifying the questions
The hypothesis in a research study is defined as the
idea, or prediction, that can be tested.
If you were to spend some time watching people in the checkout line of a local discount store to see how many read the tabloid newspapers displayed next to the register, you have chosen the _____ research method to answer your question.
Which of the following approaches might be used when trying to conduct a case study of chief executive officers of corporations?
Intensively interview a small number.
The mathematical score that indicates how much two attributes are related to each other is called the
A positive correlation between two variables suggests that
high scores on one variable relate to high scores on the second variable.
In an experiment on the effects of light on reading speed, which of the following is the dependent variable?
the measured reading speed
The value of random assignment is that it:
ensures the equivalence of the experimental and control groups.
When a researcher reports that a study’s outcome was significant, this suggests that
the results were unlikely to have happened by chance.
The independent variable in an experiment is defined as the:
factor that the experimenter manipulates.
The purpose of ethical guidelines in psychological research is to:
protect the rights of human and animal subjects
The principle of voluntary participation in research includes:
right to withdraw from the study.
Dr. Lyon wishes to ensure that he follows ethical guidelines when designing a study on the effectiveness of exposure to a feared stimulus in reducing phobic anxiety in outpatient clinic clients. to test this method he wants to place participants in a room with the stimuli or situations that cause the anxieity. In terms of the APA ethical guidelines, what is a possible risk of his study's method?
Clients will not be protected from physical and mental harm.
When the researcher’s desire to see positive results influences the outcome, this is known as
The purpose of using a placebo in research is to
evaluate the effect of participant expectations.
The purpose of using double-blind procedures in research is to
evaluate the effect of experimenter and participant expectations.
In judging the quality of research, the assumptions behind the study should be known so that one can
evaluate how well the methods tested the assumptions.
When determining the validity of research there are fundamental questions that must be asked. When we know that a particular study has evolved from a clearly specified theory, then we can answer the question:
What was the purpose of the study?
One of the issues in using college students as research participants is that compared with the general population, college students tend to:
have less well-formed attitudes
One criticism of using nonhuman animals in psychological research is that
animal research may not help us to gain a better understanding of human behavior.
The branch-like fibers extending in clusters from the neuron’s cell body are called:
Which feature of the neuron makes it distinct from other cells in the body?
ability to communicate with other cells
13. The portion of the nerve cell from which information is passed to other nerve cells is called the
A myelin sheath
increases the velocity that the electrical impulses (carrying the messages) travel through the axon
The “all-or-none law” refers to which fact about the nervous system?
Neurons are either “on” or “off”; there is no in-between.
A neuron that fires not only when a person enacts a particular behavior, but also when a person simply observes another individual caryying out the same behavior is called a(n):
________ make it more likely that a receiving neuron will fire.
The chemical substances that communicate information from one neuron to another are called
One class of neurotransmitters consisting of a family of chemical produced by the brain that are similar in structure to painkilling drugs is:
______ neurons transmit information from the perimeter of the body to the central nervous system.
The ________ is the primary means for sending messages between the brain and the rest of the body.
______ carry information to the brain.
The _______ division of the peripheral nervous system controls voluntary movements and communication between sense organs.
Activation of the autonomic nervous system requires
no conscious or voluntary action
A major function of the _____ division of the autonomic system is the fight-or-flight response in reaction to a threat.
Elizabeth was walking in the woods when she came across what she thought was a deadly coral snake. Her flight-or-fight response kicked in immediately, but then she realized that this was a harmless king snake that resembled the coral snake. She began to calm down as her ______ system kicked in.
Reading this question and selecting the correct answer reflects the operation of the _____ division.
Biofeedback procedures have proven successful in treating:
1.difficulties that are mainly emotional or mood-related. 2.physical problems. 4.physical ailments with a psychological element.
Mrs. Jones’ doctor is concerned about her memory difficulties. He refers her to a neurologist who scans her brain. She is placed in a machine that measures the biochemical activity of her brain and displays the activity on a color monitor. This brain imaging technique is called:
positron emission tomography (PET)
In order to study the brain wave activity of different areas of the brain, researchers use which of the following techniques?
Because you are currently breathing and your heart is beating, you can assume your _____ is working properly.
The reticular formation
responds to loud noises
The _____ jointly controls a variety of basic function including emotions and self-preservation.
Which of the following best describes the functions of the hypothalamus?
Regulates basic survival behaviors
From an evolutionary perspective, the newest part of the human brain is the
Which of the following is true of the frontal lobe?
It is involved in voluntary muscle movement.
Scientists have learned that the brain continually reorganizes itself in process termed:
Among right-handed people, language abilities tend to be localized in the
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