Nutrition 100 Name:_______________________ EXAM 1 1. Which of the following is not a class of nutrient? A. Alcohol 2. Which of the following nutrients can directly supply energy for human use? A. Lipids and oils 3. Which of the following statements about the nutrient composition of the American diet is true? D. It contains too many calories 4. Which of the following is a characteristic of vitamins? C. Enable chemical processes in the body 5. Which of the following is true about the energy content of nutrients? B. Carbohydrates and proteins supply 4 kcalories per gram 6. Bleu Cheese dressing containing 23 grams of fat would yield _____ kcalories. C. 207 7. A meal consisting of a Quarter Pounder, large fries, and chocolate shake provides a total of 1,120 kcalories, of which 48 percent of the energy is from carbohydrate and 13 percent from protein. How many kcalories of fat does the meal contain? D. 437 8. A Whopper sandwich contains 628 kcalories and 36 grams of fat. Approximately what percentage of the total energy is contributed by fat? B. 52 9. Which of the following are substances in plant foods that are not digested in the stomach or small intestine? C. Dietary fiber 10. Which of the following terms describes psychological influences that encourage us to find and eat food? A. Appetite 11. Ann Miles, a triathlete, wants to eat a health promoting diet and achieve dietary adequacy. Which principles should she follow to achieve dietary balance? B. Consume a variety of foods from the five major food groups every day 12. Which statement best describes nutrient density? D. Consume foods that have the most nutrition for their kcalories 13. The acronym RDA stands for A. Recommended Dietary Allowance. 14. The RDA are considered to be adequate to meet the known nutritional needs of C. 97%, or nearly all of healthy persons. 15. Adequate Intakes (AI) C. represent minimum nutrient needs when enough information for an RDA is unavailable 16. According to the Food Guide Pyramid, how many servings from the bread, cereal, rice, and pasta group should be consumed daily? D. 6 to 11 17. Which of the following is not required on a nutrition label? A. The amount of all vitamins and minerals for which there is an RDA 18. What substances, present in fruits and vegetables, may reduce the risk of cancer? A. Phytochemicals 19. Blood leaving the intestine goes by way of the portal vein to the C. liver. 20. After digestion and absorption, which circulatory system carries fat and fat-soluble vitamins? C. Lymphatic 21. In which form are most dietary lipids found? C. Triglycerides 22. Peristalsis refers to D. muscular movement of materials through the GI tract 23. What percent of a meal has been absorbed by the time it leaves the small intestine? D. 95 24. Absorption of nutrients by intestinal cells occurs by all the following mechanisms except A. sustained absorption. 25. The villi of the small intestine A. provide an enormous surface area that facilitates absorption. 26. Constipation can best be prevented by A. eating dietary fiber. 27. Which of the following is not a monosaccharide? C. lactose 28. A disaccharide is formed by the chemical bonding of A. two monosaccharides. 29. The process that plants use to make glucose from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of the sun's heat and light is called C. photosynthesis. 30. The monosaccharides important in nutrition are B. fructose, glucose, galactose. 31. What enzyme is responsible for carbohydrate digestion in the small intestine? D. Pancreatic amylase 32. Which of the following shows the process of starch digestion? B. Starch to maltose to glucose 33. Glucose is absorbed via C. active absorption. 34. Lactose intolerance is caused by ***** A. a milk allergy. B. lactase deficiency. C. milk bacteria. D. intestinal bacteria. 35. Which of the following hormones corrects a hyperglycemic state? A. Insulin 36. Which of the following hormones is released to correct a hypoglycemic state? D. Glucagon 37. Which of the following hormones is released during stressful times to increase blood glucose levels, making more energy available for use? B. Epinephrine 38. The major storage sites for glycogen are A. muscles and liver. 39. When eating a high-fiber diet one should D. increase fluid intake. 40. Which of the following is not characteristic of Type 1 diabetes mellitus? A. Arises most commonly in adulthood 41. All of the following are characteristic of Type 2 diabetes mellitus except D. the least common form of diabetes. 42. A saturated fatty acid contains A. no double bonds 43. Olive oil contains abundant amounts of which type of fatty acid? B. Monounsaturated 44. All the following are sources of cholesterol except D. peanut butter. 45. An essential omega-3 fatty acid with 18 carbons and 3 double bounds is called? C. Alpha-linolenic Acid 46. Which of the following does not describe a function of fat? C. Best source of energy for the brain 47. If a fat contains mostly saturated fatty acids, it is likely to be B. solid at room temperature. 48. Which of the following contains a rich supply of omega-3 fatty acids? C. Salmon 49. Which of the following describes a fatty acid that has one double bond? C. Monounsaturated 50. The main reason for hydrogenating fats is to B. change a liquid fat to a solid fat. 51. Which of the following is true about trans fatty acids found in hydrogenated fats? B. When consumed, they can raise serum LDL cholesterol 52. The three-carbon structure to which fatty acids are attached in triglycerides is called A. glycerol. 53. Where does digestion begin? A. Mouth 54. Which of the following is not considered part of the GI tract? B. Lungs 55. Phospholipids differ from triglycerides in which of the following ways? A. A compound containing phosphorus replaces at least one fatty acid 56. Sterols are similar to triglycerides in which of the following ways? D. They do not dissolve in water 57. Which of the following is true about cholesterol? D. It is found only in animal products 58. Which pH best describes the environment of the stomach when stimulated? C. Acidic 59. A function of the large intestine is to absorb C. water and minerals. 60. Hydrogenation produces what kinds of fat? D. Trans-fatty acids 61. Which of the following is a description of chyme? A. A watery mixture of partially digested food released by the stomach into the intestines 62. Which of the following, upon digestion, is not normally released directly into the bloodstream? A. Minerals 63. The most active area for the absorption of nutrients into the body is the B. small intestine. 64. In passive absorption, nutrients enter the cell C. from an area of higher concentration to one of lower concentration. 65. Glycogen is B. stored in the absence of dietary carbohydrate. 66. Soluble fibers D. can lower blood cholesterol. 67. The most important dietary approach for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus is to B. eat regular meals daily, at the same time and relatively same make-up daily. 68. A kcalorie is a measure of A. heat energy. 69. Measurements of height, weight, body circumferences, and body fat are called D. anthropometry. 70. Which of the following act as a code-book or blue-print for synthesizing specific proteins required to perform specific body tasks? D. DNA NUTRITION 100 EXAM 2 1. The basic building block of a protein is called a(n) C. amino acid. 2. The chemical element found in all amino acids but not found in either carbohydrates or fats is B. nitrogen. 3. Which of the following is true about protein? C. It is made up of combinations of approximately 20 amino acids 4. An essential amino acid C. cannot be synthesized in sufficient quantity to meet body needs. . 5. The nitrogen from amino acid breakdown is C. converted to urea. 6. Which of the following is a food that provides all of the essential amino acids? D. Milk 7. What enzyme is released by the stomach to digest protein? A. Pepsin 8. If a food does not contain the necessary amounts of a certain amino acid to meet a body need, that amino acid is referred to as a C. limiting amino acid. 9. When protein consumption is in excess of body needs and energy needs are met, the excess amino acids are metabolized and the energy in the molecule is A. stored as glycogen and/or fat. 10. Approximately how many different amino acids are used in the synthesis of body proteins (how many amino acids exist)? C. 20 11. A hereditary condition caused by an incorrect amino acid in the amino acid sequence of a protein chain is: B. sickle cell anemia. 12. All the following are true of the alteration of the three-dimensional structure of a protein except C. is called denaturation. 13. Cooking an egg alters its appearance due to A. denaturation. 14. All the following are primary functions of protein except to C. supply more than 40 percent of the kcalories in the diet. 15. Wilma is an alcoholic. Her liver has been damaged to such a degree that it cannot output the appropriate blood protein for fluid balance. She develops a condition called edema, which is B. the build up of fluids in extra cellular spaces. 16. If a person does not eat enough carbohydrate to supply the glucose the body needs, which of the following will happen? C. The liver will convert amino acids to glucose 17. Which of the following is true about protein intake in the U.S. compared to the rest of the world? C. About 70 percent of the protein we eat in the U.S. comes from animal products 18. If Betty wants to eat the most complete source of protein she would eat . D. eggs. 19. Marasmus usually is associated with a deficiency of A. kcalories. 20. Kwashiorkor usually is associated with a deficiency of C. protein. 21. The major fat-digesting enzyme is D. pancreatic lipase. 22. To be transported throughout the body, fats are packaged in structures called C. chylomicrons. 23. A desirable total serum cholesterol level is less than ____ milligrams per deciliter. A. 100 24. In terms of heart disease risk, which of the following is true? C. As LDL-cholesterol levels increase there is an increased risk 25. Another name for alcohol is C. ethanol. 26. How much energy does alcohol contain? D. 7 kilocalories per gram 27. Beer is made from __________. A. Hops 28. Where is the chief site of alcohol metabolism? C. Liver 29. If a man and woman of similar size drink equal amounts of alcohol, the woman will metabolize less because she has B. a lower activity of alcohol dehydrogenase. 30. If alcohol is consumed, it should be in moderation with meals. Women are advised to drink no more than __________ drink(s) per day. B. 1 31. What is the name for the chronic and progressive disease characterized by fatty infiltration of the liver and eventual replacement with scar tissue? C. Cirrhosis 32. A social drinker who weighs 150 pounds can metabolize how approximately how many grams of alcohol per hour? B. 5 to 7 grams 33. Which statement about vitamins is true? C. Help regulate chemical reactions in the body 34. Water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins differ in which way? B. Water-soluble are less likely to be toxic 35. Which fat soluble vitamins are most toxic if consumed in excess amounts or excessively supplemented? C. Vitamins A and D 36. The nutrient that can be considered both a vitamin and a hormone is B. Vitamin D. 37. All the following are true of B vitamins except D. are stored in the liver. 38. The vitamin that functions as a coenzyme, particularly in carbohydrate metabolism, is B. pyridoxine. 39. Which of the following is converted to vitamin A in the body? A. Retinol 40. A rich source of vitamin E is C. corn oil. 41. Niacin is necessary to prevent the disease D. pellagra. 42. What vitamin plays an essential role in amino acid metabolism? B. Pyridoxine (B6) 43. Formation and maintenance of collagen requires B. Vitamin C. 44. Vitamin E functions as a(n) B. antioxidant. 45. The childhood disease rickets is due to a deficiency. A. Vitamin D 46. This vitamin, when consumed during pregnancy, can help prevent neural tube defects like spina bifida. B. Folate/Folic Acid 47. Drying of the cornea due to vitamin A deficiency is called C. xerophthalmia. 48. An important role of vitamin K is the synthesis of D. prothrombin (clotting factor). 49. In general, excess amounts of water-soluble vitamins are excreted via the A. kidneys. 50. The vitamin that prevents beriberi is D. Thiamin. 51. The foods that provide the largest source of riboflavin in the American diet are C. milk and dairy products. 52. The vitamin that aids in activating fatty acids so they can yield energy is A. pantothenic acid. 53. A rich folate food source would be C. orange juice. 54. Vitamin B12 is supplied almost entirely by A. animal products. 55. All the following are antioxidants except Thiamin EXAM 3 1. Water constitutes ______ percent of body muscle. D. 75 2. The amount of water in each compartment mainly is controlled by D. ion concentration. 3. Intracellular water volume depends primarily on the concentration of B. phosphate and potassium. 4. The two most significant extracellular ions are A. sodium and chloride. 5. Water regulates body temperature through heat loss (sweat) via D. evaporation. 6. Which of the following is not true about the regulation of fluid in the body? A. Thirst is a reliable indicator of how much water should be consumed to replenish body fluids 7. Which of the following statements does not describe the role of minerals in the body? C. They provide 4 kcalories per gram 8. The typical American diet contains approximately ___ mgs of sodium per day: C. 2,300 to 4,700 9. All foods in their unprocessed form tend to be low in sodium except A. milk and dairy products. 10. Potassium performs all the following functions except A. it maintains the ability to see at night. 11. Lowering blood pressure is associated with a reduced intake of which of the following minerals? B. Potassium 12. A major function of chloride in the body is: C. component of hydrochloric acid 13. In the body, 99 percent of calcium is found in C. bones and teeth. 14. Which of the following is not a function of calcium? B. Oxygen carrier 15. The most nutrient-dense calcium food source is C. milk and dairy products. 16. Oxalic acid, commonly found in fiber rich foods, can inhibit the absorption of *** A. zinc B. iron. C. A & B D. None of the above 17. Phosphorus functions in all the following ways except B. it is critical for blood pressure regulation. 18. Which of the following groups of food would provide the most phosphorus? C. Cheeseburger on whole-wheat bun, cola 19. What is magnesium's primary function? D. It is important for nerve and heart function 20. We get most of the sulfur in our diet from (this is the same area sulfur primarily functions in the body) D. proteins. 21. Magnesium is provided in the diet primarily by A. whole grains. 22. Milk is a poor source of C. iron and vitamin C. 23. Which of the following statements is true about iron? A. Iron deficiency anemia is found among young children, adolescents, and menstruating women 24. The best-absorbed iron source is found in which of the following foods? A. Sirloin steak 25. A mineral that has primarily antioxidant functions and has been suggested to reduce cancer risk is C. selenium. 26. A goiter may form as a consequence of an inadequate intake of D. iodide. 27. Milk is a poor source of C. iron and vitamin C. 28. The mineral that gives hardness to teeth and bones, reducing dental caries is D. fluoride. 29. Copper's functions consist of all the following except B. thyroid hormone synthesis. 30. A suboptimal intake of chromium in individuals in the U.S. may be linked to A. impaired glucose absorption. 31. As far as diet is concerned, a person wanting to reduce the risk of developing hypertension would want to do all the following except C. eat lots of prepackaged and canned foods. 32. In women, bone loss begins around age C. 30. 33. The very dense, stone-like component of bones is the: D. Cortical 34. The most effective treatment for preventing bone loss in those at risk for osteoporosis is D. increasing calcium and vitamin D. 35. Which of the following is true about basal metabolism? C. It represents about 60 percent to 70 percent of total kcalories used by a sedentary person during a day. 36. Carol eats 800 kcalories a day to lose weight. She is 40 years old. Carol has been walking briskly 60 minutes daily for the past 2 months. In her younger days she lifted weights, but she has lost considerable lean body mass over the years because of inactivity. Recently, Carol was diagnosed with hypothyroidism, which lowers metabolism. Which of the following factors increases Carol's energy output and promotes weight loss? D. Her walking routine 37. The thermic effect of food A. represents the Kcalories needed to digest, absorb and process ingested food. 38. Body weight in kilograms divided by height squared in meters yields B. body mass index. 39. How would you interpret the body mass index for a woman who is 1.63 meters tall and weighs 72 Kilograms? D. She slightly exceeds the value for which health risks begin 40. What is the name of the high energy compound that cells use directly to fuel other chemical reactions? A. Adenosine triphosphate 41. The difference between aerobic and anaerobic glucose breakdown is C. the end products of aerobic glucose breakdown are carbon dioxide and water; the end product of anaerobic glucose breakdown is lactic acid. 42. Anaerobic glucose breakdown provides most of the energy for sports activities lasting C. 30 seconds to 2 minutes. 43. If a woman athlete is not menstruating regularly, she should do all the following except B. increase her kcalorie intake. 44. What is the name of the condition characterized by disordered eating, lack of menstrual periods, and osteoporosis? C. Female athlete triad 45. If a tuna casserole serving has 565 calories, 84 grams of carbohydrate and 13 grams of protein, how many fat calories does it have? 177 46. How many grams of alcohol are in a margarita with 500 calories, 75% of which are carbohydrate calories (assume no fat or protein)? D. 18 47. Studying the pima Indians has suggested several theories in nutrition and nature vs nurture in leading to obesity. What is described as the genetic propensity to having a low basal metabolic rate as defined by studying the pima Indians? Thrifty gene theory 48. In class, we briefly discussed anabolic steroid use. One danger of anabolic steroid use we discussed, particularly a hormone use such as testosterone is: Decreased ability of the body to manufacture its own hormone 49. As a supplement to increase strength, creatinine is Effective 50. True or false: Very active athletes who consume additional calories to meet their energy needs often require vitamin and protein supplements as well. False
Want to see the other 16 page(s) in Exam 1 2 3 with correct answers?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!