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“Evolution is a theory”: what does this mean to you?
a. We should dismiss the theory of evolution as a set of ideas that are unsupported by data.
b. Since it is a theory, there is no assurance that the ideas it suggests have any merit.
c. A theory is a set of ideas based on a body of solid evidence.
d. Theories are a set of hypotheses that are yet to be tested and found supportable; the theory of evolution is a set of hypotheses that the scientific community is yet to be convinced about.
c. Both dinosaursd. Neither dinosaur
c. Both dinosaursd. Neither dinosaur
a. Why all embryos start from a fertilized egg.
b. Why birds and bats have wings.
c. Why descendants of a lineage can diverge into very different species.
d. Why closely related species descending from the same ancestor have many similar traits.
a. vaccination creates an environment within the host body where the original virus strain is selected against.
b. any new mutated strains that can escape detection by the vaccinated host body are selected for.
c. the lack of vaccination makes the host body a good environment for the original virus strain to be successful.d. vaccines can cause mutations in viruses.
a. Cetacean fossil are found in plenty in modern day Pakistan and Egypt.
b. Cetaceans have tiny vestigial hip bones similar in structure to that of land mammals
c. Cetacean embryos begin to develop a hindlimb budd. Early fossil cetaceans have ankle bones very similar to that of living artiodactyls
a. convergent evolution; shared common ancestry
b. shared common ancestry; convergent evolution
c. convergent evolution; homoplasy
d. synapomorphy; shared common ancestry
a. Natural selection converting nostrils to blowholes
b. Exaptation changing the function of the nostrils
c. Mutation leading to production of new holes for breathing
d. Homoplasy leading to similar traits with similar functions in unrelated lineages
c. D & F
d. D, F, & G
e. F & G
a. Early cetaceans lived in marine environments.
b. Cetaceans evolved from marine fish.
c. Early cetaceans lived on land and drank fresh water; over time cetaceans became adapted for living in marine environments and drank salt water.
d. Early cetaceans lived on the sea shores and later cetaceans lived more inland.
a. Mammals and birds had to be included in a single new taxonomic group called Tetrapoda
b. The group of fishes remained in a single taxonomic unit, i.e. no change there
c. Lizards and turtles formed a new taxonomic unit, while crocodiles and birds formed another unique taxonomic unit.
d. Birds and reptiles could no longer belong to two separate taxonomic units
Unicorn Pegasus Horse Hippo
Magical 1 1 0 0
Horn 1 0 0 0
Hair 1 1 1 1
Hoof 1 1 1 0
Mane 1 1 1 0
a. Horse and Pegasus
b. Unicorn and Pegasus
c. Horse and Unicornd. Horse and Hippo
Wings of bats and birds are ___________ in the context of flight structures, and __________ in the context of forelimbs.
a. homologies, homoplasies
b. homoplasies, exaptations
c. exaptations, homologies
d. exaptations, homoplasies
e. homoplasies, homologies
a. The discovery of a fossil lobe-finned “fish” with a neck, shoulders, and forelimbs that could bear weight.
b. The discovery of a fossil lobe-finned “fish” with a highly reduced tail fin
c. The discovery that dinosaurs had feathers
d. The knowledge that lobe-finned fishes still exist
a. Dinosaurs and birds have similarities due to convergent evolution
b. Birds can be considered dinosaurs
c. Bird-like dinosaurs were outcompeted from their niche by birds that evolved from another lineage
d. Feathered dinosaurs went extinct because they did not use their feathers for flight.
a. There is competition for resources, which causes some individuals to survive and others to die.
b. When there is competition for resources, organisms strive harder to adapt.
c. Organisms can reproduce in plenty.
d. Reproduction and competition cause unpredictable population dynamics.
a. Individuals that succeed will be those that develop the traits that will be helpful in the environment.
b. The unequal survival in the population is unrelated to variations in traits.
c. Some individuals with certain traits are more successful than others at survival and reproduction.
d. Having traits that make an individual successful does not mean that their offspring will have those same traits.
a. genotypes, individual
b. phenotypes, population
c. populations, genotype
d. genotypes, population
a. Different alleles at a single locus produce the different phenotypes
b. Individuals are genetically identical but certain environmental conditions trigger the production of each coil type
c. The coil type could be a sexual dimorphism
d. This is a quantitative trait meaning that many loci contribute to the phenotypic differences
D is not possible, because for a quantitative trait there must be a range in trait values.
Not necessarily. They could be monozygotic twins but differ in height because of environment.
a. There is a strong influence of genes over height
b. There is a strong influence of environment over height
c. There is a strong interaction of genes by environment in the expression of the phenotype height
d. The phenotype height is controlled by the cumulative action of multiple genes
a. arise due to mutations
b. arise due to alternate splicing
c. exist because of transcriptional factors
d. lead to variation in phenotypes in a population
a. The particular trait being mapped on the genome is a Mendelian trait
b. The particular trait being mapped on the genome is influenced strongly by environment
c. The particular trait being mapped on the genome is a quantitative trait
d. The particular trait being mapped on the genome is highly susceptible to mutations
Note that there are multiple peaks for loci associated with the trait.
a. Mutations lead to elimination of individuals with dysfunctional cell division processes
b. Mutations are the ultimate source of genetic variation in populations.
c. Mutations cause diseases
d. Mutations lead to evolution
Mutations are what cause diversity. Meiosis uses existing diversity to create more diversity.
a. Gene flow
b. Genetic drift
c. Founder effect
a. increases homozygosity in populations
b. increases heterozygosity in populations
c. creates deleterious recessive alleles
d. provides a fitness advantage to individuals in the population
a. a higher mutation rate
b. a genetic bottleneck
c. stronger natural selection
d. gene flow
a. Strategy (A)
b. Strategy (B)
c. Both would be equally successful
Mating with multiple males increases the genetic diversity among her offspring.
a. heterozygote advantage
b. negative frequency-dependent selection
a. there will be directional selection at that locus
b. there will be disruptive selection at that locus
c. genetic variation will be maintained over time
d. one of the alleles will get fixed in the population over time
c. Gene regulation
Mutations can occur during these processes, but it is not a necessary part of gene expression and hence is not part of the definition of gene expression.
a. Drift is a stronger force than selection in small populations
b. Drift is an unlikely mechanism of evolution in large populations
c. Drift leads to random alleles getting fixed in the population.
d. Drift increases genetic variation within a population
a. positive frequency-dependent selection
b. negative frequency-dependent selection
c. genetic drift
d. heterozygote advantage
a. heterozygosity declines over time in the population
b. green-tail morphs are lost from the population
c. The three morphs cycle through increasing and decreasing frequency in the population, with the most common morph from one generation become the least common in the next, and vice versa
d. green-tail morphs become more common until they completely replaced the other morphs
a. graph a
b. graph b
c. graph c
d. graph d
Large populations have the least variation in allele frequencies over time. Small populations tend to see genetic drift more often.
a. Sexually reproducing organisms produce gametes via meiosis
b. Sexual selection is a mechanism of evolution in populations of sexually reproducing organisms
c. Sexually reproducing organisms have two sexes
d. All of the above
Meiosis uses the existing genetic diversity (caused by mutations) and crossover and independent assortment creates more diversity.
b. Deoxyribose sugar
c. Phosphate-sugar backbone
a. to suppress or enhance transcription
b. to cause mutations
c. to prevent translation
d. to suppress or enhance splicing
a. Independent assortment and meiosis
b. Independent assortment and cross-over
c. Cross-over and interaction with environment
d. Meiosis and interaction with environment
a. True; a single sequence of nucleotides can only code for a single set of proteins, therefore a single phenotype.
b. False; alternate splicing of exons in a gene can lead to multiple phenotype from a single gene.
a. there was more change in the trait between generations
b. there will be less change in the trait in the next generation.
c. there will be more change in the trait in the next generation.
d. there was less change in the trait between generations
a. few individuals have the trait
b. most of the phenotypic variation for the trait in the population is due to environmental differences experienced by individuals
c. most of the phenotypic variation for the trait in the population is due to genetic differences among individuals
d. there are no genes that code for the trait
Heritability means how much of the phenotype is dependent on genes compared to environment.
a. for broad sense heritability, VG includes additive, dominance, and epistatic effects
b. for broad sense heritability, VG includes only additive effects of alleles
c. broad sense heritability includes only components of variance that cause offspring to resemble their parents
d. all of the above
Resistance will increase (i.e. the genes for resistance will be selected for) only in a pesticide-rich environment. So the pesticides must have been rampantly applied during the years of increase in resistance.
a. additive effects.
b. epistasis effects.
c. heterozygote advantage.
d. pleiotropic effects
a. The frequency of the three morphs would increase and decrease cyclically every few years, with each morph having a turn at dominating
b. The orange morph would be dominant in most populations for the longest duration of time
c. The yellow morph would be dominant in most populations for the longest duration of time
d. The blue morph would be dominant in most populations for the longest duration of time
a. Many broad, flat molars
b. Long, sharp canines
c. A pronounced sagittal crest
d. A short, flat rostrum
a. dominance effect reflect both parental phenotypes regardless of allele pairs received
b. Genes with epistatic effects reflect parental phenotype regardless of the allele-pairs and other genes received
c. Offspring resemble their parents because of additive, dominance, and epistatic effects.
d. Genes with additive effects reflect some part of both parents’ phenotype regardless of allele-pair combinations received
a. Horn length
b. Wing span
c. It is hard to say
Quantitative traits: the more genes influencing a trait, the more the variation and range in the phenotype
a. Breeder A
b. Breeder B
c. Both have misunderstood it
Breeder A breeds her fastest 15% to breed; they would have a higher mean speed than the fastest 25% dogs. So her selection differential will be higher than if she had chosen to breed her fastest 25% of dogs. Hence the rate of evolution of speed in her greyhound population will be faster than in Breeder B’s population.
d. None of the above
The observed frequencies DO NOT DEVIATE from the expected frequencies; there is 0 deviation from expected frequencies.
a. species change over time
b. species give rise to new species
c. they would have disagreed on all of these
d. they would have agreed on all of these points
e. adaptation occurs when individuals change within their lifetime to adapt to their environment
Lamarck believed that individuals change within their lifetime to adapt to environments, while Darwin believed that the change occurred over generations
The graph tells us that males with the most orange have the most matings. So they will have the highest number of offspring. We are told that coloration pattern is heritable. So in the next generation there will be more individuals with lots of orange.
a. the variance due to the environment, and is not heritable
b. the response to additive effects
c. the interaction of additive and dominance effects
d. the response to the differences in environment, which in itself is a trait that is heritable.
a. Population 1
b. Population 2
c. Population 3
d. There is insufficient information
Selection differential is the same in all three populations. But the graphs tell us that Population 3 has the highest heritability. So Population 3 will see the most change over generations, so Population 3 will have the highest mean tail length in the next generation.
a. Trait A
b. Trait B
c. Trait C
Phenotypic plasticity is demonstrated when each genotype responds in a different way to the different environmental conditions. In Trait A there is phenotypic variance only due to environment. In trait C there is difference due to environment so all the genotypes respond in the same manner.
a. Trait B: VP = VG + VE
b. Trait A: VP = VG + VE
c. Trait C: VP = VG + VE + VGXE
d. Trait B: VP = VG + VE + VGXE
Trait B shows plasticity: environmental differences and genetic differences AND the different genotypes all respond to the two environments in a very different way; so Trait B: VP = VG + VE + VGXE
a. Time to metamorphosis is similar in all three environments
b. Time to metamorphosis has the highest variance in treatment 1, and lowest variance in treatment 3.
c. Time to metamorphosis is highest in treatment 1, lowest in treatment 3, and in-between in treatment 2.
d. Time to metamorphosis is highly variable within treatments
a. Variation in time to metamorphosis has a genetic basis
b. Variation in time to metamorphosis is influenced by the environment
c. Time to metamorphosis is a plastic trait
d. Plasticity in time to metamorphosis has a genetic basis, and hence can be heritable
a. Reject the null hypothesis that color pattern frequency DOES VARY between the ancestral and current population.
b. Reject the null hypothesis that color pattern frequency DOES NOT VARY between the ancestral and current population.
c. Fail to reject the null hypothesis that color pattern frequency DOES NOT VARY between the ancestral and current population.
a. genotypic; Ursidae (Bears)
b. phenotypic; Procyonidae (Raccoons)
c. morphological; Gastropods (Grove Snails)
d. None of the above
a. When we scored the morphological characteristics of the shells.
b. When we accessed the 327bp sequences from GenBank for our 19 species.
c. When we used the “Consense” program to choose the “best” tree generated.
d. When we aligned our genetic/morphological data using the PHYLIP software.When we used the “Re-Root” function in FigTree to set our outgroup
a. monophyletic; paraphyletic
b. homologous; homoplasious
c. synapomorphy; parsimonious
d. None of the above
a. Shoulder spines
b. Digits on outer lip
c. Extreme thickening of shell
d. Smooth and glossy shell
e. None of the above, they are all anti-predatory adaptations
a. The dark coloration arose from a single mutation and then spread to both forest populations.
b. There is no relationship between the coloration of the snakes and predation pressure.
c. Coloration of animals does not respond to selection pressures.
d. The dark color arose from different mutations independently in the two forest populations.
Distance is too large for mutation and gene flow. Must have arisen independently in the two populations
a. good genes indicator
b. pre-existing sensory bias
c. honest signal
d. handicap principle
The prawn has orange spots on its pincers which attracts the guppies, just like how male guppies have orange spots which attracts the female guppies.
a. Intense care of offspring required for an extended period
b. Concealed ovulation in females
c. Resource providing ability of males
d. Menopause in females
a. Genetic drift
b. Sexual selection
c. Natural selection
a. higher proportion of testes to ovary mass in the gonads
b. lower proportion of testes to ovary mass in the gonads
c. lower gonad to somatic tissue mass
d. lower testes to somatic tissue mass
Where density of chalk bass is high, there is higher rates of sneaking, so more sperm competition. Whenever there is sperm competition, testes need to be larger to produce more sperm.
Look over graphs on #81
a. offspring, resources
b. mate choice, ornaments
c. indirect benefits, direct benefits
d. direct benefits, honest signals
Gifts of candy is based on nuptial gifts which are direct benefits. Jewelry reflects wealth which is an indicator of resource holding potential; so gifts of jewelry is an honest indicator of resource holding potential, because it is difficult to cheat
In which year did the local Fish and Wildlife introduce a large number of the predatory fish to increase revenue via fishing licenses?
a. disease epidemic in the bird populations.
b. drought on the island.
c. higher than normal rainfall on the island.
d. massive die-off of the food plant of the birds on the island.
Heavy rainfall will increase the food availability for the warblers, therefore improving the body condition of females. As per the Trivers-Willard hypothesis, females in good condition produce male-biased broods
c. Neither true nor false
(A) Larger body size on average than ten years earlier
(B) Larger gape size on average that ten years earlier
(C) Smaller body size on average than ten years earlier
(D) Smaller gape size on average that ten years earlier
(A and D)
a. Because the selection pressure imposed on the toxic fish by the predators is stronger than the selection pressure imposed on the predators by the toxic fish.
b. Because the selection pressure imposed on the predators by the toxic fish is stronger than the selection pressure imposed on the toxic fish by the predators.
c. Because they are unable to produce toxins
d. Because they get smaller in a new habitat.
a. reducing the selection differential.
b. reducing heritability.
c. increasing selection pressures.
d. increasing mutation rates.
Heritability is not affected by pesticide application. But by reducing the spraying frequency and doses, there will be more susceptible individuals surviving to the next generation, so the selection differential will be lower (recall what selection differential is).
The dashed line represents the line along which testes size is perfectly in proportion with body size, in the context of the ten species being considered. Based on this graph, which of the following statements is a valid possibility?
a. Species 6 and 9 probably have a polyandrous mating system
b. Species 1, 3, and 7 most likely have a polyandrous or promiscuous mating system
c. Species 5 and 8 probably have a polyandrous or promiscuous mating system
d. Species 6 and 9 most likely have a promiscuous mating system
e. Species2, 4, 7 and 8 most likely have a monogamous mating system
Birth control pills imitate hormone levels during pregnancy which suppresses their attractiveness/ sexuality. The pill eliminates peak fertility effects on female physiology and behavior
a. species B has lower extrinsic mortality in its natural habit than species A
b. species B reproduces later in life than species A
c. species B produces smaller broods than species A
d. Species B produces larger sized offspring than species A
e. species B has higher brood sizes than species A
a. In low pathogen environments, the populations tend to have both sexes and invest more in sexual reproduction
b. When environments are stochastic, the benefits of sexual reproduction do not outweigh the costs.
c. In high pathogen environments, the populations tend to have both sexes and invest more in sexual reproduction
a. Increased hunting of tuskers leads to females selectively preferring makhnas over tuskers.
b. Increased hunting of tuskers has reduced the tusker genes and increased the makhna genes in the gene pool.
c. Elephants are choosing to go tusk-free in order to avoid being hunted.
a. Increase in selection pressures for female preference for blue wattles
b. Loss of correlation between mate signal and male quality
c. Loss of female preference for blue wattles
d. Loss of male condition
a. Group A
b. Group B
c. Cannot say
Every line is an individuals. In Group A, lots of alleles on either side of the lactase persistence alleles have hitch-hiked along with the allele that was selected for (lactase persistence); this is linkage disequilibrium. But in Group B, very few neighboring alleles have tagged along with the lactase persistence allele.
a. linkage disequilibrium with surrounding loci is low
b. linkage disequilibrium with surrounding loci is high
c. the figures do not help me determine in which group has there been a selective sweep with respect to the lactase persistence allele
a. higher; lower
b. lower; lower
c. higher; higher
d. lower; higher
a. the fact that the band color indicates the quality of the males
b. linkage disequilibrium between female preference genes and male quality genes
c. pre-existing sensory bias
d. females realize that males with a black band are likely more handicapped than males with pale colored bands
a. it did not seem to fit into his theory of natural selection
b. he could not understand how such a large a bright tail in a bird could enhance fitness
c. it seems counterintuitive to the laws of nature
d. All of the above.
a. Natural selection
b. Artificial selection
c. Sexual selection
d. Life history trade-offs
a. Zahavi’s handicap hypothesis
b. Immunocompetence Handicap Hypothesis
c. pre-existing sensory bias hypothesis
d. Fisher’s runaway hypothesis
a. genetic quality
b. resource holding potential
c. parental care
d. quality of potential nesting sites
a. Winning intrasexual competitions is more important for fitness as a female
b. It is harder for females to get matings than males
c. Resource holding potential is equally important for both sexes in polygynous mating systems
d. Being small makes it harder to win intrasexual competitions
a. When males are much bigger than females
b. When females are much bigger than males
c. When predation pressure is so high that it is unlikely that a male will get to mate more than once in its life time
d. When predation pressure is low and males are unlikely to die via predation
a. Male redback spiders that don’t get cannibalized have fewer offspring, but still have offspring
b. Male redback spiders that get cannibalized are less fit
c. Female redback spiders prefer males that offer themselves as food
d. Male redback spiders that don’t get cannibalized have more offspring
a. male spiders have a relatively short lifespan
b. when a male redback spiders is cannibalized his paternity is significantly increased because copulation time significantly increased
c. if the female redback spider cannibalizes the male the likelihood she mates with a subsequent male decreases significantly
d. when a male redback spiders is cannibalized his paternity is significantly increased because cannibalized males have higher number of matings
a. sexual selection
c. the immunocompetence handicap
d. a pre-existing sensory bias
a. Tail length versus body condition
b. Parasite load versus tail length
c. Number of mates versus tail length
d. A and B
e. A and C
Because body condition limits tail length, and if body condition is limited, then tails cannot grow any longer
a. increase in pathogens, all else remaining the same
b. increase in dietary resource, all else remaining the same
c. decrease in mate selectivity, all else remaining the same
d. increase in female fecundity, all else remaining the same
Increase in dietary resource would allow them to grow longer tails in response to sexual selection.
a. independent assortment
b. linkage disequilibrium
c. sensory bias
d. indirect benefit
a. Natural selection
b. Artificial selection
c. Intrasexual selection
d. Intersexual selection
a. for plasticity in male courtship
b. against plasticity in female preference
c. for bright colored males
d. for females that consistently prefer males that court less frequently
a. larger brood sizes, larger offspring, slower senescence
b. smaller brood sizes, larger offspring, faster senescence
c. smaller brood sizes, larger offspring, slower senescence
d. larger brood sizes, smaller offspring, faster senescence
a. directional; large
b. directional; small
c. disruptive selection; large and small
d. stabilizing; medium
d. If the advantage is increased genetic compatibility or good genes, the fitness of females in (3) should be greater than the fitness of females in (2)
a. Clinging on to females as long as possible
b. Courtship displays
c. Male “pregnancy”
d. Mate guarding
e. Production of mucus plugs
Courtship displays increase matings not paternity certainty.
a. survival versus reproduction
c. current reproduction versus future reproduction
d. maintenance versus longevity
The lower brood size is a consequence of selection for larger offspring. Size and number of offspring trade-off against each other
a. male fitness is limited mostly by the number of eggs they can fertilize
b. male fitness is limited mostly by the limited number of females available for mating
c. male fitness is limited mostly by the number of eggs they can care for
d. male fitness is limited by female fecundity
a. sexual conflict
b. sexual ornamentation
d. a strategy to ascertain paternity
a. fathers are less likely to abandon their nests in order to guard them from sneakers.
b. fathers are more likely to abandon their nests.
c. females will lay more eggs.
d. females will lay fewer eggs.
Since the fertilization by sneakers is already done when eggs are laid, the males are not going to guard the already fertilized eggs against sneakers.
a. loss of fertility later in life
b. reduced predation pressures
c. additional fitness gained from caring for grand-offspring
d. additional fitness gained from life-long mating
a. Species that produce plenty of offspring at a time
b. Species in which the operational sex ratio is strongly female biased
c. Species in which offspring do not require much parental care
d. Species in which the cost of mate searching is high
a. Species 1, 2, and 3
b. Species 4 and 7
c. Species 7, 8, 9, and 10
d. Cannot say from the information provided
In species with high levels of forced copulations, there is coevolution between female “anti-male” structures and male “forcing” structures.
a. Predation rate
b. Number of red spots
c. Number of black spots
a. Where range overlaps with the range of the venomous frog, mimicry of aposematism is selected
b. Where range does not overlap with the venomous frog, camouflage is selected for.
c. Where range does not overlap withthe venomous frog, mimicry of aposematism is NOT selected for.
d. Where range overlaps with the venomous frog, production of bright red spots is too costly to be selected for.
Look over graph # 127. Too much information to not have graph on card
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