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Theories that explain changes in children as an interaction between growth and learning are called critical theories.
Piaget was especially interested in representational play activities, such as pretending that a stick is a gun or that sand is food.
Vygotsky’s concept of scaffolding helps to define the role of adults in children’s learning.
Gesell’s maturational view of development focuses on children’s observation and subsequent imitation of adult behavior.
Maslow’s theory focuses on the ages of typical child development.
Ignoring the negative and paying attention to the positive behaviors of children are basic applications of Gesell’s approach to child development and learning.
The industrious nature of the elementary age child is an important consideration in Erikson’s theory.
Vygotsky’s and Piaget’s theories are significant in their contributions to our understanding of young children’s cognitive growth and development.
The theories of Erikson, Freud, Piaget, and Vygotsky all focus on distinct stages of child growth and development.
The toddler most likely passes through the following stages: secondary behavioral systems, focusing on independence, aggression, and sex-role learning; the crisis of autonomy versus shame and doubt; the anal stage; and the early preoperational stage.
How the environment brings about changes in child behavior.
Critics of the view that developmental and learning theories are the foundation of early childhood education prefer which of the following views?
Mary is pretending to make a cake from play dough. A theorist whose ideas might be applied to this situation is:
Six-year-old Chan has decided to build an airplane at the woodworking center today. This choice of activity would be congruent with the theory developed by:
Jason Goodbird comes from a financially secure, warm, and loving home. He is very involved in everything that goes on at school. A theorist whose ideas would apply to his situation is:
The cognitive domain of development concerns:
The physical domain of development concerns:
The motor domain of development concerns:
they represent a European American point of view.
white middle class child rearing practices may not be appropriate for all children.
children’s roles in the family and community are important influences
Developmental theories focus on changes in the child due to the interaction between ____________________ and ____________________.
Theories that emphasize change that originates in the environment are referred to as ____________________ theories.
Stage theories view growth and learning as proceeding in an orderly fashion from birth to adulthood. Examples could include any three of the following: Erikson, Freud, Piaget, Vygotsky, or Gesell.
Answers should include defining Developmentally Culturally Appropriate Practices, as an elaboration of DAP that focuses more strongly on cultural appropriateness. DCAP has been developed from theories moving toward applying strong sociocultural theoretical foundation to early education and development.
What is the purpose of critical theory?
Answers should include some of the following: Critical theory encourages teachers to examine power relationships in the classroom. Based on the assumptions that knowledge is socially constructed and there is no universal truth.
Much of the current research applied to planning for young children is based on psychological or educational studies rather than on actual data from the human brain. Also, there is concern that it could be misapplied when used to guide planning.
Answers should include mention of cultural diversity, the development of these theories by white male Europeans, the view that the adoption of these theories demonstrates disrespect for diversity, that planning for children should grow out of community and family beliefs and values, and possibly references to text examples. The cautionary view of Stott and Bowman could be included, as well as the view of Coll et al.
Theories are broad ideas that attempt to explain how children grow and learn. Answers should include two application examples from the unit or two invented by the student and descriptions of any two theories.
Developmental theories emphasize growth and how it is affected by learning, whereas behaviorist theories focus on the environment and how behavior is learned through environmental influences. Developmentalists tend to emphasize one area, such as the cognitive or the affective. Behaviorists do not focus on particular areas of behavior but consider how behavior in general is learned. Students might refer to Figure 2-4 and Figure 2-5.
Describe how early childhood program structure can be guided by developmental theory.
Answers will vary but should include descriptions of at least 3 out of the following six factors: space, guidance techniques, instructional methods, materials, curriculum, and assessment. Piaget, Vygotsky, and Erikson should be used as support.
The child’s hereditary factors are determined during the fetal period.
In the case of multiple births, siblings who develop from separate eggs fertilized at the same time are referred to as monozygotic siblings.
The nature versus nurture controversy centers on the questions of the relative influence of heredity and environment on development.
Heredity is viewed as placing limits on development.
The prenatal environments of identical twins are identical.
Developmental behavioral genetics is a relatively new science that looks at the genetic nature of behavior.
DNA sequences have been found that underlie common problems such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, arthritis, and other cancers.
Methamphetamine is primarily a problem only in the inner cities.
A procedure called germline gene therapy is a method doctors can use to alter the genes in women’s eggs, men’s sperm, or an embryo that is only a few days old.
AIDS-infected mothers should be treated.
Brain development is dependent on the activity in neural circuits that strengthens the circuits.
Environment begins to play a major role in child development:
The child’s hereditary factors are determined:
In the case of multiple births, siblings who develop from the division of one egg into two or more parts are referred to as:
Developmental behavioral genetics is a relatively new science that looks at:
Prevention of drug and alcohol abuse should begin:
the importance of early life experiences.
the interactive influences of genetics and the environment.
the central role of early relationships.
by a pregnant woman over age 40.
by an engaged man who has an uncle who had cystic fibrosis.
when a newborn is found to be deaf.
Children with a hostile temperament are likely to receive _____.
information the brain stores, uses, and creates comes from the environment
The new field of Epigenetics provides new information for the field of genetics and:
a. more is being learned about the chemical reactions that switch parts of the genome on and off.
b. scientists are working on new drugs that can silence bad genes and wake up good genes.
c. findings in this field are doing away with the nature/nurture question.
The chances that a couple might conceive a child with a potentially dangerous condition or negative trait can be determined by a ____________________.
Knowledge of the children’s medical histories can be invaluable for understanding their current behavior. Might include examples from Chapter 9 and from the genetic counseling action of Chapter 10.
Define the terms gene, chromosome, DNA, gene therapy, and phenotype.
Gene: biological unit of heredity
Chromosome: the major unit that controls heredity
DNA: the substance in genes that contains genetic information
Gene therapy: a procedure that can alter the genes in ovum, sperm, or embryo
Phenotype: the individual’s external measurable characteristics that reflect the genotype
Answers will vary but should include two of the following: There are many dangers in the environment that can harm children. Substance abuse before or after birth can be harmful to mother and child. Methamphetamine and AIDS are particularly widespread and dangerous for children. Other dangers include unsafe drinking water, inadequate sanitation, air pollution, inadequate food sanitation, poor housing and inadequate waste disposal.
Explain and compare the pros and cons of genetic counseling.
The major positive effect of genetic counseling is that prospective parents can find out ahead of conception if there is some genetic problem that might result in a damaged baby. They might then decide to adopt. For those who already have a child with a genetic defect, the counselor can help them decide whether they want to have another child. The most difficult decision is the one to be made by already expectant parents who find they have a defective child.
Explain the Human Genome Project.
Explain the importance of genetics to child development.
The ovum is the female egg cell.
Every sixty days, a female egg (ovum) housed in a fluid-filled sac called a follicle leaves an ovary and travels to the uterus.
Once the female egg reaches the fallopian tube, there is a period of 48 hours during which it can be fertilized by a sperm from the male.
During sexual intercourse, the male during orgasm ejaculates a liquid called semen that may contain 300 million to 500 million sperm.
The fetus is sensitive to light.
The last period of prenatal development is the zygote.
The embryonic stage is a critical time during which defects are most likely to develop.
Inadequate nutrition is no longer one of the greatest dangers during prenatal development.
Anoxia was a drug prescribed for morning sickness which caused retarded development.
The best way to prevent teenage pregnancy is to threaten teens about the dire consequences of sexual activity.
Brain development begins about 16 days after conception.
The first event in the steps to conception is:
The second event in the steps to conception is:
the ovum, in the fluid-filled follicle, leaves the ovary and heads for the fallopian tube.
The third event in the steps to conception is:
Conception begins with the following three events:
The menstrual cycle reaches its midpoint; the ovum, in the fluid-filled follicle, leaves the ovary and heads for the fallopian tube; and the ovum reaches the fallopian tube.
The male sequence begins with:
the sperm being ejaculated.
Male fertility problems that may respond to treatment do not include which of the following?
the first IVF or “test tube” baby born.
The third stage of prenatal development, from about two to nine months, is called the:
The connection from the fetus to the placenta is the:
The substance that protects the fetus from injury and provides for movement and growth is the:
Male and female external genitalia are visible:
during the 12th week of the fetal period.
The fetus can survive outside the uterus by the:
21st week of the fetal period.
Toenails and fingernails are formed by the:
Eyelashes and eyebrows have formed and the eyelids are open by the:
Some of the precursors of teen pregnancy that can be successfully worked with are:
early school failure, early behavioral problems, family dysfunction, the pressures of poverty.
does not focus directly on the prevention of teen pregnancy.
works with teens on competent decision making, interacting with other people, and identifying and handling their own emotions.
results in 30 percent fewer teen pregnancies.
Low birth weight
widely spaced eyes, thin upper lip, short eye opening.
small head, underdeveloped brain.
Over the counter medications
The ____________________, or TOP, is an effective program designed to reduce teen pregnancy that has been implemented at 107 sites in 16 states, according to the Children’s Defense Fund Annual Report on the State of America’s Children, 1998.
The developing child is most vulnerable to the effects of damage from drugs, alcohol, disease, infection, radiation, and poor nutrition during the ____________________ stage.
Teen pregnancy is a major contributor to, as well as a consequence of, poverty. It keeps teens in poverty and adds children to the poverty rolls.
Zygote begins when the sperm and ovum unite and lasts about two weeks, embryo begins when zygote implants in uterine wall and lasts until about eight weeks, fetus begins about nine weeks and ends at birth.
Answers will vary but should include three of the factors discussed in the text Chapter 9 under the heading “Environmental Effects”.
Answers will vary but should include that prenatal influences may be affecting a child’s current behavior.
Answers should include nutrition, material characteristics and experiences such as emotional state, age, physical size, Rh Factor, oxygen level, radiation, mother’s personal habits, drugs and disease.
Describe the development of the child during the gestational period.
The period of pregnancy is called the gestational period. Each stage should be described: the uniting of sperm and ovum, the embryonic period, and the fetal period.
· Begins 16 days after conception By 27 days, brain and spinal cord begin development. By the 5th week, synapses are forming in the spinal cord. By the 6th week, connections permit fetal movement (include examples). During the second trimester, the brainstem takes control of vital functions (provide examples). The cerebral cortex is last to mature.
There are many environmental changes for the newborn, such as the change from minimal sensory stimulation to stimulation of all the senses. At birth, the newborn changes from dependence on the mother for nutrients and oxygen to dependence on outside supplies and on his own lungs and digestive system.
For the Leboyer birth, lights are kept dim to minimize environmental change.
Water birth is when the mother is immersed in water and the infant emerges from the liquid environment of the womb into the water.
Bonding is the process whereby parent and infant determine they are special to each other.
At birth, most babies are happy and calm, but environmental factors may change them to be cranky and hyperactive.
The neonatal period lasts for one week.
The Apgar scale is used to obtain a dynamic assessment of newborn behavior.
A premature infant is one born before completion of the full gestation period.
Some adults may need assistance in learning good parenting skills.
Having an infant with special needs usually is a cause for stress for everyone in the family due to the extra attention the child with special needs requires.
The Apgar scale is used to:
being from a lower socioeconomic level.
having a teenage mother.
being from a single-parent household.
The infant who is not clearly of one temperament type falls into which of the following categories?
Adults should respond to infants with a difficult temperament by:
The process through which parent and child learn that the other is special is called ____________________.
Changes: environment changes from amniotic fluid to air; temperature becomes much more variable; from minimal sensory stimulation to high stimulation; nutrition changes from that which arrives via the mother’s blood to dependence on an outside supply and the baby’s own digestive system; oxygen no longer comes from the mother’s blood but must be processed by the baby’s own lungs; elimination is processed by the neonate’s own intestinal system
List and define the temperament types identified by Thomas and Chess.
Answers should include easy child (Easy child (40%): falls into routines, is happy, adapts well; Difficult child (10%): has difficulty with routines, does not adapt to new experiences, tends to react negatively and intensively to anything new; Slow-to-warm-up child (15%): is inactive, reacts mildly to environmental stimuli, has a negative mood, slow to adjust to new experiences; Child with a combination of patterns (35%): demonstrates many combinations of patterns
The Apgar scale is used at one minute and five minutes after birth to assess the neonate’s readiness to be outside the womb. Vital signs such as heart rate, skin color, muscle tone, reflexes, and breathing are each rated on a scale of 0 to 2. A score of 4 or less indicates the baby needs immediate help.
Wet with amniotic fluid, skin pale to pink, or slightly yellow due to jaundice, eyes smoky blue and may not be natural color until end of first year, head is large and newborn cannot control, legs are usually bowed and bent so soles of feet are parallel, neck is short, no chin, nose flat, head misshapen, six soft spots on head called fontanels that allow flexibility at birth and later brain growth, close about 18 months, responds to voices, show preferences for female voices, synchronize movements to mothers voice, ready for interaction and looks at human faces, eye to eye contact reinforces attachment, may track objects with eyes, attracted to sweet smells such as milk or sugar, turn away from unpleasant odors such as vinegar and alcohol, may distinguish own mother’s milk from milk of another mother, prefers sugar over salt water.
List the five stressors most common for mothers of newborns in the NICU.
Infant’s appearance, health and hospitalization; Separation from infant/ not feeling like a parent; Communications with and/or the actions of the medical staff; Financial concerns; NICU environment and equipment
Compare the brain development of premature boys and girls.
Parents feel sorrow, depression, emotional rejection of the infant; Parents blame selves for the problem or are overwhelmed by special needs; Financial stress may be greater; Siblings may experience more stress and receive less attention; Lack of positive responses from infant may make parent-infant interaction and attachment more difficult; Strength of negative effects usually increases with severity of disability. Suggestions for professional support will vary but should include providing
Carl Rogers emphasizes that parents need to accept their children and themselves.
According to Piaget’s theory, the infant is in the sensorimotor period.
Skinner emphasizes the importance of the right environment as the key to healthy growth and learning.
Freud believed that the infant develops a sense of either trust or mistrust through experiences during feeding.
Maslow theorized that the infant’s oral gratification experiences are critical influences on emotional and personality development.
Vygotsky believed that culture has little influence on the developmental course of a disability.
Infants cannot discriminate emotional states.
The more time a father spends with his infant, the higher he is likely to rate the infant’s social and cognitive capacities.
The cost of full-day child care for infants is typically between $2,000 and $5,000 per year.
Cross-cultural dialogues between teacher and parent can be beneficial if conflicts are approached from a problem-solving point of view rather than a power approach.
A theorist who emphasized that parents need to accept their children and themselves is
Greenman recommends that spaces for infants:
Coparenting conflicts that may occur during divorce can ____ children’s attachment.
The availability of quality infant child care can be summarized as follows:
the infant discriminates between new and familiar objects.
the infant discriminates between a group of two and a group of six blocks.
the infant appears to recognize the person who will care for him.
child care workers are required to have little, if any, training.
on average, child care workers are paid only $17,440 per year.
in some states, a high school diploma and passing a criminal background check are the only requirements for employment.
____________________ believed that an infant builds mental pictures based on his social interactions and that observational learning helps him construct knowledge.
____________________ refers to the ways we know about what goes on outside our bodies.
For _______________ growth to take place all of the five senses must be exercised.
In 2008 a _______________ resulted in increased unemployment and families living in poverty.
________ percent of children live in low income families.
Erikson: the development of trust; Freud: focus on the mouth and sucking experience as they relate to later psychological development
Provide three examples of sensory responses in any of the five sensory areas: touch, taste, smell, hearing, sight
What are some reasons why certain infants may not fully develop their sensory competencies?
Infants with health problems, lack of attractiveness, or whose mothers lack feelings of competence may not have the opportunity to use their sensory capacities fully and thus not fully develop their sensory competencies.
A number of factors might be included: poverty and related problems, cultural diversity and cross-cultural differences in child-rearing practices, health and nutrition, employment, biculturalism, and examples of child-rearing in diverse cultures
Contrast Bandura’s and Vygotsky’s view of infant development.
Both emphasize importance of social interactions. Vygotsky identified a series of stages including transitional period from birth, two-months to one year when the child does not view self as separate from adult and experiences a crisis at one year with the onset of increasing language and motor competencies. Bandura focuses on the importance of imitation as the infant beings to build mental pictures based on social experiences and learns it is possible to control others through their own actions.
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