Exam 1 (Lectures 2-7)
Last Modified: 2011-06-27
- Links together nucleotides
- Between nucleotides that are right next to each other- Covalent bond between 3' to 5'
- RNA is single stranded and DNA is double stranded
- RNA has Uracil to replace DNA's Thymine
- RNA has ribose sugar (2'C has OH) and DNA has deoxyribose sugar (2'C has H)
- DNA + Proteins
- Beads on a string.
- Chromosomal DNA
- Nucleosome: core histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 (octamer)
- Liner Histone H1 and non-histone chromosomal proteins
- 30 nm condensed
- 10 nm decondensed via salt
- DNA replication, DNA repair, Transcription, Recombination
- DNA Primase synthesizes new RNA primer.
- RNA Primer is started on the new strand. DNA polymerase continues where RNA Primer left off to finish the DNA fragment (until it hits the next RNA primer).
- RNase (nuclease) will digest the RNA parts and DNA polymerase will repair, meaning make the RNA into DNA.
- DNA ligase comes in and links the Okazaki fragments together.
- Late onset genetic disorder (40s and 50s)
- Transmitted as a vertical, autosomal dominant allele
- Severe depression, cognitive defeats and chorea (movement disorder)
- Progressive neurodegeneration that is ultimately fatal
- If understood the slips and uncorrect replication, then maybe could help
- Contains many metabolic pathways
- Protein synthesis occurs here
- Makes up 54% of the total cell volume
- i.e. Red blood cells are mostly this and very very small nucleus.
- Contains main genome
- DNA and RNA synthesis occurs here
- i.e. Lymphacytes are mostly nucleus and little cytosol
- Synthesis of most lipids
- Synthesis of proteins for distribution to many organelles and to the plasma membrane
- Nuclear membranes and ER evolved through invagination of the plasma membrane. Nucleus regulates splicing of messengar RNA and removal of entrons.
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