A process of age-related changes in growth, feelings and thinking across the lifespan
What are the four assumptions of lifespan perspective?
1) Development is lifelong 2) It is multidimensional and multidirectional 3) It is highly plastic 4) There are multiple interacting forces
Development is influenced by a complex blend of biological, personal and social forces
Development is a joint expression of growth and decline; change is not linear; it is dynamic, not static.
The possibility of change. Human traits can be molded into different forms and yet people maintain a durability of identity. Some aspects of development have the capacity for change whereas others do not.
Events that are strongly related to age and therefore fairly predictable in when they occur and how long they last.
Explain why people born around the same time (cohorts) tend to be alike in ways that set them apart from people born at other times.
Events that are irregular; they happen to just one person or a few people and do not follow a predictable timetable.
An orderly, integrated set of statements that describes, explains and predicts behavior. They produce hypotheses, generate discoveries and offer practical guidance.
Three core questions
1) Continuous or discontinuous? 2) One course of development or many? (equifinality or multifinality) 3) Nature or nurture?
A process of gradually augmenting the same types of skills that were there to begin with.
A process in which new and different ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times.
Stages are qualitative changes in thinking, feeling and behaving that characterize specific periods of development (how theories that accept the discontinuous perspective regard development)
An infinite number genetics and environmental combinations can result in one pathway
One source of influence can result in many different pathways
Freud's psychosexual theory of development
Emphasizes how parents manage their child?s sexual and aggressive drives in the first few years is crucial for health personality development
Freud's three parts of the personality
Id: unconscious, present at birth, guided by the ?pleasure principle? Ego: conscious, rational part of mind; emerges in early infancy; source of impulse control Superego: social-moral component (i.e., the conscious), develops from parent-child interactions (age 3-6)
Role of conflicts between biological drives and social expectations
Each psychosexual stage includes potential conflicts?how a person resolves these conflicts determines personality and behavior. (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital)
Erikson's Psychosocial Theory of Development
In addition to mediating between id impulses and superego demands, the ego acquires attitudes and skills that make the individual an active, contributing member of society ? Life-span theory that focuses on the impact of relationships in shaping personality ? Eight psychosocial stages characterized by a developmental crisis ? Core concepts: ego-identity and identity exploration
Stages (Freud and Erikson)
? Trust vs. mistrust (oral): birth ? 1 year ? Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (anal): 1 ? 3 years ? Initiative vs. guilt (phallic): 3 ? 6 years ? Industry vs. inferiority (latency): 6 ? 11 years ? Identity vs. role confusion (genital): adolescence ? Intimacy vs. isolation: early adulthood ? Generativity vs. stagnation: middle adulthood ? Ego integrity vs. despair: late adulthood
Stimulus-response associations: directly observable events?stimuli and responses?are the appropriate form of study ? Our experiences shape who we are
Classical Conditioning (Pavlov)
Learning by association: a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus
Skinner's Operant Conditioning
Behaviors are learned through reinforcements and punishments
Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory
Behavior is learned through imitation and observation (modeling). We model people we admire. Our cognitions (thinking) are key.
Procedures that combine conditioning and modeling to eliminate undesirable behaviors and increase desirable responses
Piaget?s Cognitive Developmental Theory
? Cognitive equilibrium: a state of mental balance ? A state of disequilibrium results in cognitive growth
Change existing schema to accommodate new information
Incorporate new information into existing schemas
Advances in thinking result from quantitative increases in memory, attention, processing speed, organization and metacognition
The study of the adaptive value of behavior and its evolutionary history
Evolutionary Developmental Psychology
Seeks to understand the adaptive value of cognitive, emotional and social competencies over time
Optimal time for certain capacities to emerge in which a person is especially responsive to the environment
A limited time span in which a person is biologically prepared to acquire adaptive behaviors
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory
Development results from the dynamic interaction between the person and their culture (social interaction with more knowledgeable society members necessary to transmit to the next generation)
Vygotsky: Guided participation
Children learn culturally meaningful activities from more knowledgeable members of society
Vygotsky: Zone of Proximal Development
Range of skills learner can perform with assistance but not independently
Bronfenbrenner?s Ecological System Theory
Each person is developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment (no one can be understood in isolation)
a person?s immediate environment (family, schools, peers, church)
Interactions among miscrosystems
Larger community setting (don?t contain person but affect his experiences)
Cultural values, laws, customs and resources
Change over life course and history
Common Research Methods
? Self-report (structured interview, clinical interview) ? Scientific observation (naturalistic vs. structured) ? Case study ? Ethnography
Correlational research design
Data collected without altering a participant?s experiences. Reveals relations among variables, but not cause and effect
Scientist manipulates a variable (IV) to see if it affects behavior or outcome (DV)
? Able to establish cause and effect ? Researchers ?control? the environment o Independent variable (IV): changed or manipulated by the scientist o Dependent variable (DV): the specific behavior or outcome of the study o Experimental group = treatment; control group = no treatment
Examines groups of people differing in age at the same point in time
Data is collected repeatedly on the same individuals over time
Studies several groups of people of different ages then follows groups longitudinally
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