exam 1 review stuff
- University of Michigan - Ann Arbor
- Psychology 533
- exam 1 review stuff
Last Modified: 2012-10-26
sleep. most importantly LC.
are greatest during wakefulness, intermediate
in NREM sleep, and lowest during REM sleep. However, can have biphasic effect on wakefulness by contributing to the production of one or more
sleep-enhancing substance, or inhibiting wakefulness producing neurons.
REM sleep; permits acting out of dreams
• dreams are often violent or injurious
• typically affects men > 50 y.o.
• acute onset is induced by tricyclic
antidepressants, SSRIs, SNRIs
• effectively treated with clonazepam
usually associated with reduced striatal DA.
Anterior hypothalamus GABA greatest during REM: Sleep-on, GABAergic neurons in the VLPO and MnPN project to the major arousal-promoting, nuclei and inhibit them:• DR (5-HT) • LC (NE) • tubero-mammillary nucleus of the posterior hypothalamus (histamine)
Posterior hypothalamus GABA induces sleep onset, greatest during NREM
Clock gene ==> Ebox ==> Cry 1,2 proteins which inhbits orignal gene.
hippocampus Theta rhythm necessary for hippocampal learning (present only in REM and awakening)
Absence of NE allows both sides of plasticity (LTP and LTD). Noradrenaline blocks depotentiation.
But abnormal addition of NE via LC/noise/direct
electrical stimulation enhances initial learning but
prevents memory reoganization & reset in light of
Process C = circadian rhythm • Sets thresholds for falling asleep and waking up
Model is phenomenological, S and C has no physiological basis, Does not include different sleep
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