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Colorado State University
Exam 1 Soc 100
Exam 1 Soc 100
Colorado State University
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(couples, mom&dad etc)
Small groups examples
Large group example
republican party, auto industry
Sociology vs Common sense
Common sense: some beliefs are simply wrong
-Universal differences based on culture no common sense
Sociology: objective and systematic
ideas that are so taken for granted that they have never been seriously questioned and seem normal to any normal person
The Sociological Imagination
complex interactive relationship between micro-level individual experiences and macro-level public issues
Social World Model
Helps us picture the levels of analysis in our social surrounding as an interconnected series of small groups, organization, institutions and societies.
patterns of organization that constrain human behavior.
schools, government, peer pressure, trends.
interconnected parts of social world.
largest units that make up society
population of people, usually living within a certain geographic area, who are connected by common ideas and have common political authority.
take place through actions of people in institutions and other social units or structures.
Do not judge as good or bad
everything that influences the social unit: from physical surroundings to organized surroundings.
Micro level analysis
focus on individual or small group interaction
Meso level analysis
intermediate-size social units.
small than nation but larger than local community.
Macro level analysis
largest social units. entire global forces, nations
knowledge based on experience
PLANNING A RESEARCH STUDY
Step 1: Define a topic
2: Review existing research
3: Form Hypothesis
DESIGNING THE RESEARCH PLAN AND METHOD FOR COLLECTION DATA
Step 4: Design research plan
5: Select a sample
6: collect data
MAKING SENSE OF THE DATA
Step 7: Analyze data
8: Draw conclusions
Methods for collecting data
Experiments: control group
uses existing data
systematic categorizing and recording or info from written or recorded sources.
2 or more methods of data to verify results
small group of people to represent the population
Father of Sociology
3 approaches to discipline of sociology
based on observations, focus on objectification
emphasizes unique capacity of humans to create meaning
better understand how society works
Stresses how sociology can be practical and make human life better
Symbolic interaction theory
focuses on peoples interpretations of symbolic behavior
George Herbert Mead
Rational choice theory
humans are fundamentally concerned with self interests.
weighing costs and rewards or projected outcome.
planned outcomes of interactions, organizations or institutions
actions that undermine the stability or equilibrium of society
conflict is inevitable.
first female sociologist
critiques hierarchical power structures which feminists argue treat women and minorities unequally
Verstehen (deep empathetic understading)
Theories under Macro analysis
Structural Function theory
Theories under Micro Analysis
Symbolic Interaction Theory
Rational Choice Theory
cohesion based on shared experiences
things function teh way they always have
language determines culture
Culture determines language
Organized around kinship
Division of Labor by Gender/age
Vegetation and animals for survival
Actions and behaviors dictated by survival
Rely on Crops
Using tech for increased efficiency
increased inequalities and class divisions
Pronounced D of L
Mass production and assembly lines
Rising standards of living
Widening gaps between owners and workers
First real assembly line
Post Industrial Societies
Majority of workforce in service sector
pronounced D of L
Thinking your culture is superior to others
all objects we can see or touch
Non material culture
how things should be to a culture (justice freedom etc)
how things actually are in a culture (corrupted government, etc)
rules shared by members and rooted in value system but not law
Norms that most people observe due to great moral significance
strongest form of more
actions considered unthinkable
punishments and rewards recognized by officials
groups that effect only a small segment of one's life
Smaller than a nation but able to support people throughout their life span.
challenges dominant culture
population of people within a specified area who are connected by culture and cooperate to attain goals
entire world becoming a single culture
behavioral standards etc that have become common across the globe
Social construction of reality
individuals and groups shape reality through interactions
lifelong process of learning to become a member of the social world at birth and continuing until death
the building block of socialization
Looking glass self
reflective process that develops the self based on the internalization of how others view us and how we view others
learning to take the perspective of others
spontaneous, unpredictable, impulsive part of self
part of self that has learned roles of society through interaction and role taking
Controls I and its desires
3 and under
imitates behavior, sounds, gestures
preparing for role taking
from perspective of one person at a time
when the child develops the ability to take on roles of many and conform to societal expectations
The Generalized other
Meads term for an individuals understanding of norms and precedures
process of shedding one or more positions and taking on others which means learning how to adapt to the new status
Usually happens in a total institution
cuts people off from rest of society
Prison, boot camp
Agents of Socialization
transmitters of culture
help new members find their place
Define our identity
Formal Agents of Socialization
official or legal agents
families schools etc
informal agents of socialization
media, internet etc
social and economic link between host and home countries
Individual has loyalty to more than one country
intimate or childs plays
friends and informal interactions
usually separates based on power
usually with public figures in formal setting
assigned at birth and do not change during a person lifetime
Chosen or earned by decisions made and personal ability
time in life where status may become most important and take precedence over others'
tension between roles within one of the statuses
conflict between roles of two or more social statuses
state of normlessness that occurs when the rules foe behavior in society break down under extreme stress from rapid social change or conflict
close intimate long term relationships
most micro level
part of everyday life
formal, impersonal relationships. Often temporary, based on specific limited purpose or goal.
composed of members who act as role models and establish standards against which members measure their conduct.
one to which an individual feels a sense of belonging
does not belong
often an opposition to in group
rationalization of social life
attempt to maximize efficiency by creating rules and procedures focused solely on accomplishing goals
complex secondary groups deliberately formed to pursue and achieve certain goals
purpose of maximizing efficiency
concentration of power in hands of small group
occurs when original motives or goals of organization are displaced by new secondary goals
states that in a bureaucracy, work expands to fill the time and space available for its completion
structures are usually less hierarchical.
employee participation in decision making
Mook vs Midriff
Merchants of cool
Mook=stupid crude boy character
Midriff=teenage girl sex appeal.
Both created by media and by society. could not exist without each other.
Quantitative data and what kind of reasoning?
#s, facts, stats,
Qualitative data and what kind of reasoning?
Description. hard to reduced to numbers
symbols language interview
Theory to facts--Specific to general
Facts to Theory
General to Specific
Primary data analysis
you run analysis
secondary data analysis
WHat are some problems with 2ndary analysis?
They are not prepared with your questions in mind
small, simple, few hundred
bonded by common beliefs and emotional ties
Labor divided by gender and age
Large and more complex
Complex division of Labor
bonded by increased specialization of tasks and INTERDEPENDENCY
Cohesion based on denpendency
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