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What type of virus in the mouse hepatitis virus?
widespread and contagious coronavirus affecting mice; spread by oral-nasal, direct contact, fomites, transplacental route; en
mouse hepatitis virus
clinical disease seen only in suckling mice; fecal-oral route; transplacental; causes diarrhea, jaundice, tremors; no treatme
Reovirus type 3
Most popular parasitic diseases of mice?
blood parasites, nematodes, protozoans, cestodes, acanthocephalans, ectoparasites like mites, lice, fleas
What is the primary causative agent of viral respiratory disease in mice?
What are the recommended sites for blood collection in mice?
Evidence of nonpruritic alopecia in mice housed in groups is most likely the result of?
Common methods to assess anesthetic depth in mice include what?
-reactions of the NM system
What natural infection is nearly 100% in wild mouse populations (and zoonotic)?
high incidence in certain strains of mice due to selective breeding; primarily transmitted through the placenta or milk
In random-bred mice, what kind of tumors are most common?
What are some types of neoplasia affecting mice?
mammary tumor virus, leukemia virus, sarcoma virus, pulmonary tumors
What are some common diseases of older mice that are age-associated?
Amyloidosis, myocardial degeneration
Husbandry-related issues with mice?
-trauma, lesions become infected w/ S. aureus
-nutritional - mice fed inappropriately often develop stress related diseases
All dosages in mice/rats are extralabel and based on what?
empirical data, observation and experience; very few drugs approved by FDA in these small animals
Majority of lab rats are what species?
What is the purpose of a rat's tail?
organ of balance and heat abatement
Unique features of rats?
docile; highly social; interact well; trainable, harderian glands (lacrimal gland containing porphyri --red tears)
Where do rats have sweat glands?
only on hairless foot pads
What parts of a rats body are hairless?
tail, nose, palms, soles and lips
brought on by disease or stress; red tears
Do rates have tonsils?
What percentage of its body length is a rats' tail?
Why are rats unable to vomit?
Do rats have a gallbladder?
What is the estrus cycle length of rats?
What is the length of gestation in rats?
Average life span of rats?
Rates have a _______ uterus, where each horn has a separate cervical canal. They have _-_ pairs of mammary glands. They have
bicornuate; 4-6; 20-24
When do rats' ears and eyes open? By when is their hair coat fully grown? When do they being eating solid food?
ears: day 3-5
eyes: day 7-14
hair: day 7-10
solid food: by the end of week 2
Disadvantages of intensive breeding systems?
increases stress, fighting and injury to offspring
What is an intensive breeding system?
continuous housing of males and females together; takes advantage of post-partum estrus
What is a nonintensive breeding system?
separate housing for male and female while female is pregnant; female not bred again until litter is weaned; fewer offspring but less stress, fighting and injury
Rat molars closely resemble that of ______.
What physiologic feature makes the rat useful as a model for toxicology studies?
inability to vomit
What are some specific diseases purpose-bred mice are susceptible to?
hypertension, diabetes insipidus, cataracts, obesity
Rats have a unique ability to adapt to new environments, making them useful for what type of study?
What are some other fields that rats are useful for studying?
audiology, oncology, teratology, embryology, gerontology, endocrinology, immunology
type of rat that has been randomly bred; not inbred; referred to as outbred; have similar characteristics but not genetically
stock (Sprague-Dawley, Long-Evans, Wistar)
type of rat that has been inbred
strain (Albany, Brown, Buffalo)
Define inbred when referring to rats.
when at least 20 generations of brother-sister or parent-offspring mating has occurred
Goal of inbreeding rats?
to develop a strain of animals that are genetically homozygous; should all respond the same way to medical treatment or other experimental manipulation
decrease in reproductive capability of successive rat generations
inbred strain of rats that develops as a result of genetic mutation in existing strains, then is perpetuated in future genera
inbred strain of rat in which a mutation that arises in one strain is transferred to another through a serious of backcross m
congenic (ex. Athymic, F1 hybrid)
______ animals are derived by removing specific DNA sequences from one strain or species and inserting them into an ovum just
transgenic; pseudopregnant; gene
removes or blocks a specific gene from an animal; used to study diseases associated with defective genes (sickle cell anemia,
Albany rats are used for studies of?
Spontaneous hypertensive rats are used for?
Brown rats are used for?
myeloid leukemia studies
Buffalo rats are used for?
studies of autoimmune diseases
Fisher344 rats are used for?
esophageal and bladder cancer studies
Common strategies used to confirm genetic purity in rats?
protein electrophoresis, serologic testing, mandible measurement, backcross mating
What type of bedding is used for rats?
high quality hardwood shavings, or corn cobs
Why should soft wood bedding not be used for rats?
resp. problems, hepatic issues
Environmental enrichment items for rats?
objects to climb on, nestlets, extra bedding, tissues, hay for burrowing, tubes or boxes to hide in
Excess noise can cause what in rats?
audiogenic seizures; cannibalism; decreased reproductive rates
Temp/humidity required for rats?
65-75 F; humidity 40-60%
If the humidity is too low, what can happen to rats?
How much water does the avg rat consume daily?
13-20mL/ 100g BW
How much food does the avg rat consume daily?
Pregnant/lactating female rats require up to __ times the amount of nutrition.
How much protein should a rats' diet consist of? Fat?
protein 20-25%; fat 4%
What is the shelf life of most commercial rodent chow?
6 months from milling date
Ways to ID rats?
temporary IDs: cage cards, nontoxic colored marker, shave spec. patches of hair, record natural markings unique to spec. animal
Permanent IDs: tattoo of ear, tail, or toe, ear punching/tagging, toe clipping, microchips
common chronic bacterial infection of rats, caused by Mycoplasma pulmonis; treated with oxytetracycline
Murine respiratory mycoplasmosis
What are some signs of Murine Respiratory Mycoplasmosis?
-mucopurulent oculonasal discharge, sneezing, snuffling, rales, dyspnea, otitis media (causing head tilt, circling, incoordination)
How is Murine Respiratory Mycoplasmosis spread?
by direct contact, aerosol, and fomites
What are some signs of Tyzzers disease in rats?
hepatic necrosis; myocardial degeneration
can cause chromodacryorrhea in rats, nasopharynx inflammation, pleuritis, meningitis, bronchopneumonia leading to pulmonary c
Streptococcosis (S. pneumoniae)
How is Strep pneumo treated in rats?
Penicillin G, oxytet, chloramphenicol, gentamycin
present in nasopharynx of normal rats; not a disease causing agent; other rodents and human beings are susceptible; "rate bit
Streptobacillosis (S. moniliformis)
most significant viral disease of rats; highly contagious, short incubation; causes necrosis of salivary and nasolacrimal gla
usually remains subclinical in rats; spread by direct contact/aerosol; compromises immune system causing weight loss, dyspnea
Most common neoplasia in rats?
common neoplasia in rats; can form almost anywhere on the body; usually benign; can be surgically removed
neoplasia common in older rats; grows rapidly and compresses adjacent nervous tissue
Common neoplasia in Fisher 344 rats?
Age-associated diseases in rats?
-chronic glomerulonephropathy (progressive disease; acute death from resp failure)
-polyarteritis nodosa (thickening of medium-sized arteries)
-radiculoneuropathy (degenerative disease, affects spinal roots and results in
Why should rats not be fed fresh veggies?
possible contamination with Salmonella, Yersinia, and Bacillus species
Husbandry-related diseases of rats?
trauma from fighting leading to amyloidosis
-barbering (alopecia without pruritis, chewing of hair by cagemates)
-ringtail (caused by low humidity)
-malocclusion (overgrowth of incisors, if not clipped--unable to eat)
Secretions from the harderian gland in rats are often referred to as?
A parasite of rats that has significant zoonotic potential is what?
tapeworms; Hymenolepis nana
Animals that are produced as a result of random matings are referred to as ________.
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