Study Guide Chapter 1 Facets of development (1) Physical Cognitive Social Developmental theories/theorists (8) Study Handout Research designs/models (3) Descriptive- Attempt to describe something about behavior of interest Naturalistic or structured May involve self-reports or case studies Valuable in providing information; can?t determine cause-effect relationships Correlational Enables determination of nature and strength of relationships between variables of interest May involve multiple variables and complex relationships Still cannot determine cause and effect Determining Cause and Effect Involves systematic manipulation of independent variable (IV) to determine effect on dependent variable Other variables that may affect controlled Only way to show cause-effect relationships Often unethical or impractical to manipulate IV with human participants Cross-sectional method compares children of different ages against each other at same time Can be completed in relatively short time period Age not only difference in participants Cohort effects Longitudinal design involves testing same children repeatedly over time at different ages Allows more direct measurement of change over time Problems are time involved, dropouts May combine methods in hybrid design, such as cross-lagged or sequential Research ethics (1) Risks vs. benefits Nonharmful procedures Informed consent Respect privacy Consider unforeseen consequences Implications of research Chapter 12 Parenting controls (warmth/punishment/spanking) (2) Parental warmth refers to degree to which parents are accepting, responsive, and compassionate with their children Parental control refers to degree to which parents set limits, enforce rules, and maintain discipline for children Both warmth and control are continuums Important to consider combined effects When firm control used by warm parents, discipline child-centered and positive When firm control used by cold and rejecting parents, discipline can be harsh, punitive, and even abusive Parenting styles/patterns (3) Characteristics of authoritative parents: - warm, exhibit firm control - clear standards and high expectations - clear communication; flows both ways - willing to negotiate disciplinary matters - rational, consistent, child-centered, inductive in approach to discipline - best outcomes for children Characteristics of authoritarian parents: - firm control, but harsh and punitive - obedience-oriented - no negotiation with children Children more hostile, less well-liked, perform more poorly in school, less independent Characteristics of permissive parents: - warm but have little control - fail to set or enforce appropriate limits - may become indulgent Children more impulsive, perform more poorly in school, less self-assured, independent and confident Rejecting parents are harsh and actively reject children Neglecting parents ignore children, fail to perform parental duties May be psychologically unavailable to children Children fare worst of all types Parenting, gender roles/ethnicity (3) Transition to parenthood stressful Majority of parents report decline in marital satisfaction following birth of first child; one-quarter of all divorces occur before babies are 18 months old Married women with children now work outside home as frequently as married men When children born, parents move toward more traditional gender roles Imbalance in time spent with child between parents; in one study, mothers spent 23 hours per week alone with children and fathers spent 2 hours Predominance of mother involvement documented in other cultures Compared to mothers, fathers spend greater percentage of time with children in play, often physical in nature Situation reflects stalled revolution - men?s involvement in family work has not kept pace with women?s increasing roles in work outside the home Effects of divorce (2) Married couples living with own biological children represent less than one-fourth of American households 68.2% of children live in two-parent households, but one may be step-parent Bumpass (1984) predicted that 38% of all white children in U.S. and 75% of African American children would experience a divorce in the family before age 16 Divorce process initiates many stressful events that increase risk of negative outcomes for both parents and children Overall effect of divorce depends on several factors: mediating effects, specific vulnerabilities, protective factors In selection model, characteristics of parents cause both divorce and children?s problems As a group, children of divorced parents show lower scores on a number of behavioral and psychological measures While divorce is important risk factor for children, in most cases effects are small to moderate The hardest time for children is the first two to four years following divorce As a group, children of divorced parents show lower scores on a number of behavioral and psychological measures While divorce is important risk factor for children, in most cases effects are small to moderate The hardest time for children is the first two to four years following divorce Divorce may be associated with some positive outcomes, especially following divorce in high-conflict marriage if divorce reduces conflict Moderate demands to increase child?s level of responsibility associated with greater competence and empathy during adulthood It is unclear whether consistent gender differences in the effects of divorce exist Also unclear whether the effects of divorce differ by age of child No definitive answer exists about what kind of residential arrangement following divorce is best, but it is important to maintain relationship with both parents Three intervening factors important in understanding effects of divorce: money, parenting quality, and community connections Lack of money has far-reaching effects Divorce often results in decline in both quantity and quality of parenting Moving means loss of social supports Child care settings (1) Recent change in nonmaternal care from extended family to outside family No clear-cut answers about effects of nonparental care While day care by itself does not affect attachment, it may interact with other risk factors such as low levels of maternal sensitivity and responsiveness Quality of care provided is important mediating factor in social interaction skills No clear answer about relationship of early or extensive care to behavior problems Family and child characteristics interact with child-care factors in determining effects on cognitive competence Quality of program especially important when children are disadvantaged Two components identified: structural quality and process quality Majority of child-care arrangements in U.S. do not appear to be of high or even good quality Chapter 11 Peers, friendships/cultures (3) Friendship: A close, mutual, and voluntary relationship between peers Reciprocal and persist over time Functions include support, companionship, affection, and stimulation Functions change over time Help children learn relationship skills Social contacts increase dramatically as children enter school Larger peer group, less adult supervision Main ingredients in forming friendships are opportunity and similarity Number of ?best friends? increases until about age 11 when children become more selective Children?s close friendships typically progress through three stages 1. Play-based friends (ages 3 to 7 years 2. Loyal and faithful friends (ages 8 to 11 years) 3. Intimate friends (adolescence and beyond) Adolescents spend twice as much time outside classrooms with peers than they do with parents, siblings, or other adults Those with close friendships have higher self esteem, understand others? feelings, and are generally more popular Also are better behaved, get better grades and have higher IQs, but studies only correlational Similarity guides formation of friendships Emergence of cliques and crowds in adolescence Cliques are generally small groups of same sex and race; group forms context for majority of peer interactions Most children report clique membership by age of 11 Crowds are larger units made up of individuals who have similar reputations or share primary attitudes or activities Membership often based on stereotyped perceptions held across the school population; i.e.,?jocks? ?druggies? ?nerds? Minorities often categorized into own crowds Having antisocial or delinquent peers one of strongest risk factors for adolescent violence Aggressive adolescents who are rejected at highest risk Strongest peer pressures for most adolescents tend to be positive Link shown between self-esteem and membership in particular crowds Clique memberships loosen by mid-adolescence, crowd affiliations weaken by end of high school Play stages (1) Six levels identified: 1. Unoccupied behavior 2. Onlooking 3. Solitary play 4. Parallel play 5. Associative play 6. Cooperative play Play evolves and changes as children acquire social skills Older children able to coordinate play with peers or in a larger group Play strategies, structures (2) Sensorimotor play during first year By 3 months of age, infants can grasp small objects By 9 months, can attend to specific features of objects and begin treating objects differently - play adjusts to fit object Symbolic play emerges between 12 and 14 months Sociodramatic play becomes common by 3 years of age - playing different roles and characters Can serve any of following functions: imitation of adults, reenactment of family relationships, expression of needs, outlet for forbidden impulses, reversal of roles, or just plain fun Ages from 3 to 5 especially imaginative Play becomes increasingly realistic in middle childhood Focus on activities and games with structured rules and logic Children?s collections also reflect interest in logic, order, and organization In middle childhood, play also centers around acquisition and improvement of physical skills Organized sports participation can be considered play if motivated by fun of participation In adolescence, shift from concrete and realistic thought of grade-school child to more hypothetical and idealistic thought Movies, TV, music, video games, and similar activities used for self-understanding, sexual attraction, an intimate communication More selective in physical outlets, focus on one or two activities in which they excel Peer nomination techniques (2) Peer nomination categories/effects (3) Peer nomination technique frequently used to measure social status in childhood Five categories typically result from peer nominations: popular, rejected, average, controversial, and neglected Category of rejected children includes two very different subtypes About 50% are considered rejected-aggressive, 20% rejected-withdrawn Controversial children receive large number of both positive and negative nominations Associations between category and characteristics only correlational; don?t know cause and effect Early negative social experiences may cause continuing problems in later years Peer rejection associated with academic difficulties, higher rates of delinquency, arrest, violence, and substance abuse Often implicated in school violence Withdrawn children are at greater risk for depression, loneliness, negative self-worth Intervention programs helpful Chapter 13 Effect of teachers Defining readiness for school not easy Age is not a good predictor of academic success or learning Assessments show only low to moderate validity; many children misclassified Most U.S. children reasonably ready for school, but still room for improvement Controversy exists over whether to delay those felt ?not ready? Delay may further academic problems, undermine motivation and self-esteem May deprive children of very experiences they need Attributions a child makes about his or her performance have important effects on achievement motivation, behavior Specific views of success and failure strongly influenced by kind of feedback offered by parents and teachers Teacher?s beliefs about ability are expressed in feedback, also affect classroom practice and interactions Teacher?s beliefs about own effectiveness correlated with student achievement If teacher expectations are communicated through behavior, student motivation and achievement affected Positive classroom climate is associated with higher student motivation and achievement Being a warm and friendly teacher is not enough - good classroom management and effective teaching skills essential Considerable debate exists over ability grouping, or placing children in instructional groups based on ability Effects may be positive for high-ability students, but long-term effects for lowerability students are generally negative Cooperative learning grouping practices can have positive effects in many areas Overall school climate reflected in schoolwide practices influences children and teachers alike Parental involvement both at home and at school also contributes to school climate and is associated with better achievement Small class sizes beneficial but expensive School structure effects transitions Effect of poverty (2) Children more likely to suffer the effects of poverty than any other age group Poverty results in limited options, more difficulty in day-to-day lives The younger a child is when living in poverty and longer he or she lives in poverty, the larger the impact tends to be Affects child?s well-being in numerous ways Ethnicity and poverty associated Inner-city poverty difficult context for children; often compounded by associated obstacles such as crime, etc. Family can overcome influences of a poor neighborhood by establishing social networks, monitoring children, limiting interaction with negative influences, and having positive expectations for behavior Poverty rate in rural areas almost as high as in inner city For some rural children, poverty does not disrupt social supports due to strong family loyalty Diverse population; difficult to draw firm conclusions as studies lacking Effect of media (2) Television is most commonly used form of media at all ages Audio second most frequent for all but youngest group of children Video game and computer use occupy less time per day at all ages than print media Use of TV, movies, video games peaks by age 13, then declines Gender differences noted both in type of media used and preferred content Ethnic differences seen in time spent using media and type used Computer use equivalent among ethnic groups due to school availability Consistent differences between socioeconomic groups in TV use, time with print media TV has mixed effect on cognitive skills and academic achievement Recent study showed positive relationship between watching educational programs during preschool years and grades in high school No strong evidence that watching noneducational television has negative effect on school performance or reading By the time average child in the U.S. leaves elementary school, he or she will have viewed more than 8,000 murders and 100,000 other violent acts on TV TV violence different from real-life violence; often portrayed as good, without consequence, causing no pain or suffering, or even funny Effects of many studies show that TV violence has moderate negative impact on children?s behavior Related to later aggressive behavior; one study found that watching TV violence at age 8 was best predictor of aggressive behavior at age 18 Many of studies correlational, but experiments show that in short term, watching violence on TV causes more aggressive behavior TV may have beneficial effects as well; moderate to large positive associations are reported between watching prosocial programming and prosocial behaviors But pure prosocial content on TV rare Gender and ethnic stereotypes can both be influenced by TV viewing Video games may improve variety of skills in short term, but long-term effects and transfer of skills unclear Majority of games feature aggression or violent content which may increase aggressive thoughts and behavior Social impact of heavy game playing unknown Education-oriented software can have beneficial effects Most frequent use of Internet by children from 10 to 18 years of age for schoolwork, followed by entertainment and communicating with friends Greater use of Internet by teens has been associated with greater loneliness Observational learning important for children; video games model violence and let children practice simulated violence Unrealistic, stereotyped, prejudiced characters and events can encourage inaccurate cognitive schemas Desensitization to violence Heightened levels of arousal that persist Cultural concern Culture refers to a system of shared customs and meanings that allow individuals to participate as members of a group and that are transmitted from one generation to the next Cultural differences that are related to individualism and collectivism have been found for many beliefs and behaviors related to child development Recent analyses challenge traditional assumptions but may reflect changes in cultures Acculturation is the process of learning the language, values, customs, and social skills of a new culture Lengthy process that can create conflict and stress for parents and children Immigrant strategies to aid adaptation include biculturalism, using children as cultural brokers Mainstream culture changes with diversity Culture permeates all systems that affect children directly or indirectly, in turn influencing their thoughts, emotions, beliefs, and behaviors Cultural differences can sometimes be misconstrued as deficits Some aspects of culture transmitted through direct teaching of parents, observational learning, what is withheld Chapter 4 Growth/pre-puberty Average newborn weighs 7.5 pounds and is 20 inches in length Birth weight doubles by 5 months Girls reach 50% of adult weight by age 9, boys by age 11 Length increases by 50% in first year By age 2 have attained more than 50% of adult height Growth hormone production peaks during sleep Nutrition/obesity Healthy diet includes balance of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals Estimated 3-4 million children < age 17 in America may be malnourished; 230 million under age 5 worldwide! As many as 10% of 2-year-olds in U.S. may suffer stunted growth due to malnutrition/health problems May cause lowered intelligence, poor school performance Obesity most frequent nutritional problem in U.S. ? 64% of adults over age 20 Rate of obese children tripled from 1960- 2000 Children more sedentary, consuming more fast food, processed foods 3-4% of female adolescents may exhibit eating disorder Anorexia nervosa involves distorted body image, fear of weight gain, refusal to maintain healthy weight Bulimia nervosa characterized by cycles of binge eating and purging, fasting, exercise Genetic component, cultural influences Chapter 10 Self-concept, development/self evaluation (2) Based on work of William James (1890), two basic aspects of self distinguished: I-self, or awareness of separate existence Me-self, or what you know about yourself Self-evaluation: judgments a person makes about his own characteristics; self-opinion Opinions about self form basis of self-esteem, or the emotions one feels toward the self Self-evaluations may be quite different depending on domain Younger children distinguish fewer domains From infancy, children construct working model of self Model changes as children have more experiences and interact with more people I-self and me-self are cognitive constructions that become increasingly complex with advancing cognitive skills No innate sense of self; social interaction important to develop one Biology influences in that temperament has important influence on self-representation During first few months of life, baby develops an understanding that she is individual with unique physical sensations and emotions Cross-modal perception helps infants become aware of physical self and understand that emotions distinct from others Personal agency: realization that actions have effect on environment; enhanced by response of caregivers Consistent interactions form basis for sense of self-efficacy Between first and second year, me-self emerges as indicated by rouge test Most show selfrecognition by 21 months Development of me-self reflected in language Young child?s self-concept tied to concrete behavior Self-descriptions become increasingly abstract with age Older children increasingly realistic in their assessments of abilities Three factors influence changes in self-representation: 1. Overall cognitive development 2. Language, especially personal narratives 3. Social comparisons Erikson believed issue of identity development primary during adolescence Fueled by abstract thought, comparison of ?real? with ?ideal,? and role-taking Task is to integrate many aspects of selfrepresentation into coherent sense of identity Marcia (1966) proposed two aspects of task: the crisis and commitment Some adolescents have additional task of developing ethnic identity Begins in middle childhood, develops fully in adolescence Phinney (1990) proposed three stages similar to Marcia?s identity statuses: unexamined ethnic identity, ethnic identity search, resolution of conflict Important to remember that there are multiple aspects to identity; adolescent may reach commitment in some areas before others Culture plays important role Relationship with parents also key - supportive accepting approach that provides reasonable expectations and limits best Global self-evaluation formed about 7 years of ageSelf-evaluations become increasingly differentiated Each domain evaluated independently, resulting in profile of strengths/weaknesses Self-evaluations typically become more negative at about 11 or 12 years of age Biological, cognitive, social factors important Self-evaluations typically show gradual increases in later adolescence Basis for self-evaluation begins in infancy with quality of caregiving received Second factor is comparison of real self with ideal self - discrepancies in important domains and degree of received social support Perceived physical appearance most highly correlated with overall self-esteem Self-evaluation and perceived competencies have direct impact on choice of activities and persistence on difficult activities Strong relationship between self-evaluations and depression ( r between .72 and .80), but direction of relationship unclear Self regulation, control (1) Self-regulation: ability to control own behavior, emotions, and thoughts and to alter them in accordance with situational demands Includes ability to inhibit first responses, to resist interferences, and to persist Various aspects of self-regulation associated with number of positive outcomes Ability to inhibit shows steady improvement from ages 3 to 7 Older children and adolescents increasingly able to self-regulate behavior, emotions, problem-solving strategies Also affected by context, such as type of self-regulation requested by task Aspects of temperament related to self-regulation Maturation of brain areas such as frontal lobes related to inhibition Modeling of other?s behavior important Role of private speech Parenting style affects how well and how quickly self-regulatory skills develop Kohlberg/moral development (2) Refers to cognitive aspects of morality, or ways in which children and adults think about right and wrong Depends on level of cognitive development, perspective taking, degree of cognitive disequilibrium Lawrence Kohlberg studied moral reasoning through responses to moral dilemmas Theorized three levels of reasoning divided into two stages each: preconventional level, conventional level, postconventional level Critics question cross-cultural differences, consistency, validity of model for women Some theorists focus on moral affect, or how emotions are involved in morality Parenting based on punishment associated with lower levels of moral behavior Inductive parenting encourages development of empathy and sympathy Empathy involves cognitive development Social learning theorists such as Bandura argue that moral and immoral behavior learned through operant conditioning and modeling Altruism is prosocial behavior which is self-chosen and internally guided Sharing and attempts to help seen as early as one year of age Aspects of context and child affect prosocial behaviors such as sharing and cooperation Aggression: behavior intended to harm people or property May be instrumental, hostile, or relational Common during childhood years, typically during conflicts over possessions Physical aggression decreases by age 5 while verbal aggression increases Instrumental aggression decreases while hostile aggression increases from 4 to 7 years In general, boys more physically aggressive from an early age, but girls more likely to show relational aggression In adolescence, patterns harder to characterize Hostile and openly aggressive behavior reaches highest levels between ages 13 and 15 and then decreases, while other forms of aggression continue Family environment plays key role, especially in coercive home environment Way of thinking about social situations also affects likelihood of aggressive behavior Effects of cultural conditions and poverty
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