Sociology of Women Exam I Study CHAPTER 1- Anderson >Gender & Sex -sex seen as dichotomous (male/female) -> gender dichotomous (masculine/feminine) -gender- social construction, learned, unquestioned, interaction btw biological characteristics and socio-cultural-environment, vary among diff cultures -gender become part of ranking -women continually sidelined/disadvantaged -> soc of women try to fill in the lack in scholarship >Sociological imagination: C.W. Mills - intersection of personal experiences and larger history, ability to see relationship btw own life and history -personal troubles of environment: individual experiences -social/public issues of social structure: transcend indiv experiences >Betty Friedan- illustrate idea of sociological imagination -1950s, american society, reveal myth of feminine domesticity (which was glorified at time period), women dissatisfaction thought was individual problem -wrote about social issues-> liberation of thoughts >feminism: emphasizes social basis of women?s experiences, different types of feminism exist -fight for equality, action oriented -feminism stigmatized: ppl fear sexual orientation, against status quo, associated w/ radicals >agency: individual choices, freedom, action, creativity, resistance, possibility, transformation >structure: society/larger norms, determinism (rules, rigidity), order, conformity, power, constraint >hegemony: power, dominance, well-established, no one questions >subvert: overthrow, resist >patriarchy: authority lies with men >sexism: derogatory, biased, prejudiced attitudes about gender >continuum: analytic device used to study social phenomena that has polar ends >Margaret Mead article- Sex & temperament in 3 primitive societies -3 tribes in new guinea -debunk idea certain gender temperaments common to all humans - no natural innate sex temperament, it is socially induced, vary among societies/cultures -Arapesh- no gender differentiation, both fe/male ?maternal? behavior, feminine, passive, emotionally responsive to each other?s needs -Mundugumor- no gender differentiation, both fierce, cannibalistic, violent, aggressive, ruthless -Tchambuli- reversal of western gender roles, women dominant & impersonal; males less responsible, emotionally dependent -gender not 2 mutually exclusive categories, question patriarchal heterosexual systems -androgenous- gender neutrality, combination of masculine/feminine traits >Patricial Hill Collins -gender, race, class as basis of classification oppression is simultaneous -usually don?t question basis of privileges; dichotomize and understand ppl in terms of ?pure victims/oppressors? -collins argue: no pure victim/oppressors; privileged some areas and disadvantaged others, exist w/I multiple systems of oppression -reconceptualize race, class, gender as categories of analysis, as alternative terms -use new way of conceptualization to arrive at new vision of relationships -collins critical of additive approach >additive approach: rely on either/or, dichotomous thinking instead of both/and approach; one identity seen as primary and others are added on to it rather than seen together; dichotomous diff ranked >interaction approach/matrix of domination (Collins)- simultaneous oppression, combination of identities -individual privileged along one dimension & oppressed along another, depend on context -everyone both oppressors and oppressed -examines oppression along 3 dimensions: 1. institutional- well organized, established, systematic, macro level (ex: slavery) -institutions determine how think about gender b/c starting pt learning 2. symbolic- symbols become basis of ideologies, knowledge, thought, value System -institutionalized, well established oppression operate though ideas/stereotypes, categories internally differentiated 3. individual- ?personal is political;? depending on context, experiences would be very diff; all choices become political acts; don?t live isolated, social structure necessarily influences indiv experiences CHAPTER 2- Social Construction of Gender -socialization- process whereby infant gradually becomes a self-aware, knowledgeable person skilled in the ways of culture into which s/he is born, continuous throughout life -gender socialization- learning of gender appropriate behavior -gendered institutions (macro)- everything in society influenced by gender, learn to do gender through Institutions -social roles (micro)- expectation society places on person, culturally defined expectations/duties/rights -gender roles- expectations for behavior/attitudes that culture defines appropriate for women and men -gender identity- combination of self-view, process of interaction btw self-definitions, and society; what it means to be feminine/masculine based on how view self and how others view you; ppl assigned to certain gender categories based on physical attributes -agents of socialization- internalize/learn one?s gender roles through groups/indivs or social contexts; depending on age group, socialization can be understood as: -primary socialization: occur during infancy/childhood (family) -secondary socialization: later in childhood into maturity (peers, friends, religion, etc.) >Peter Berger -socialization involves social control (concentric circles) -innermost circle-> outermost: 1. individual 2. unconscious level (subtle/tacit/implicit)- rewards and sanctions, mild/moderate 3. overt/coerced/extreme level-extreme sanctions -continuum of gender expectations -gender identities/expectations intersect w/ racial/ethnic/class identities >nature/nurture debate: -biology (physical characteristics) vs. socialization (learned behavior, culturally specific) 1. biological reductionism & biological determinism -biological reductionism- all issues of id reduced to single factor, reduce complex event/process to single monolithic/one dimensional cause -biological determinism- idea b/c certain anatomical characteristics, inevitable have some behavioral traits >Anderson counterargument: -3 sex hormones in both men and women (estrogen, progestin, testosterone) -before puberty, few quantitative diff btw women and men -if hormones alone responsible for aggression/submissiveness, then we would see similar behavior for boys and girls -correlation btw hormones and behavior, only show association, not cause 2. Hermaphroditism- ?intersexed? ppl -biologically mixed/incomplete sex characteristics developed in womb, ambiguous -process of id of such ppl shows interaction btw bio and culture and pervasiveness of dichotomous characterization -sex reassignment 3. sexually dimorphic traits -characteristics considered peculiar to women or men -sexually specific and society deems specific, emphasizes diff rather than similarities to establish binary system (ex: colorblindness) >Emily Kane-?No way my boys are going to be like that? -parents as agents of socialization -nonconformity amongst pre-school aged children -girls: encouraged non-conformity, non-stereotypically feminine -boys: encourage be more emotional, house care, nontraditional but positive; limitations: ?icons of femininity?- Barbie dolls, nail polish, makeup, crying, passivity -devaluation of femininity- fear of homosexuality- homophobia -heteronormality: heterosexuality as norm >symbolic interaction- interaction bet humans that take place through symbols/interpretation of meanings, interaction develop self-identity -communicate w/ each other b/c all understand system of symbols-culturally specific -self= objects (to others) + reflection (inner negotiation w/ how others evaluate us) >George Herbert Mead- 3 stages in development of self 1. preplay/imitation stage- meaningless imitation; no sense of other, little sense of self 2. play stage- role playing, can put self in position of another -develop sense of particular other (seeing from pt of view of particular other person, limited number roles)- girls do more 3. game stage- complex, organized roles of several players at once -generalized other (seeing pt of view of entire community, negotiating several roles at once)- boys do more >Gilbert- ?Doing Gender? -experiment, be man for a while; try learn to be a man, take on masculine traits (symbolic ideologies- behaviors) -masculinity/femininity developed diametric opposites, difficult to have dialogue --->FILM: ?Hijras? -on boundaries of gender system, try and assert agency; born male, feel female -stigmatized, rejected from family -choice change gender match sex or change sex match gender CHAPTER 3- popular culture >popular culture: component of culture shaped by everyday practices done by lay ppl-- shape attitudes, opinions, behavior, value, symbolic system -also created by larger corporations w/ power & resources -material culture: mass media- image based & print media (tv, radio, internet, billboards, etc) -non-material culture: ideas, ideologies, symbolic level -stereotypes of women: sexualization/objectification/vulnerability of women; domestification -men?s beliefs about breasts: media effect women self-esteem and how men view women?s breasts -hypersexuality- showing overly sexualized images of women --->FILM: ?Micky Mouse Monopoly? -depict images seemingly innocent --->FILM: ?The Strength to Resist? -images of ideal body, racist (white=beauty); mothers can pass body self-loathing to daughters; images trickle down from pornography; vulnerability=sexy -exaggerate insecurity to buy products -controlling images- power media has as agent of socialization -cultural narratives- frameworks by which ppl come to understand themselves and their world CHAPTER 4-sexuality >sexuality: consists of those cultural scripts aimed at erotic arousal that produce genital responses -mediated by society/social structure/culture, not just indiv -society prescribes and proscribes (forbids) what is acceptable, reinforce gendered structure -politics of sexuality- link btw sexuality and power structure -power: ability of an indiv/group to exert influence on other indiv/group even w/o their consent -gender (dichotomous/ranked ways)->politics of sexuality->discourse-system of knowledge/ideas-> reinforce gender -phallocentric thinking: women?s sexuality defined not independently but in relation to men >menstruation & menopause- bodily processes have social meaning -menstruation-pms, menstruation as medical disorder, negative -menarchie- onset of puberty for women, right of passage, careful in expressing sexuality, secretive/shameful -menopause: perceived as disease- ageing of women- physical, sexual, social decline -can perceived positively, ?good old?- celebration of end of contraceptive use, less constrained, more free >sexual revolution- greater freedom in sexual behavior and development of liberal attitudes -simultaneous tendencies->greater sexual subjectivity- use agency in sexual desire- pleasure, safety -> sexual objectification- defined by needs/desires of others w/ no regard to women?s pleasure or safety >Ariel Levy- ?raunchy culture?- degrading/demeaning women -heterosexuality- ahistorical, natural -heterosexist-heterosexually considered only acceptable form of sexual expression-institutionalized, considered privileged, default, normal -negative sanctions for all others >Katz- ?The Invention of Heterosexuality? -sexuality purely instrumental-reproduction -eriticism that crept in -sexy-> reproduction/procreation->eroticism/pleasure -medical doctors- no names for sexual orientations originally, doctors play critical part in narrowing sexuality -?erotic apartheid?- normal sexuality distinguished from perverted sexuality, heterosexual ->reproduction, homosexual-> sterility -homophobia- fear/hatred of homosexuality developed in society, uphold masculinity, associate homosexuality with femininity, ties in with sexism -homosexuals lack institutional privileges- subtle form of control -extreme forms of control- victims of crime, harassment, violence, abuse >Queer Theory- challenges heterosexism (not only natural way) -fluidity of sexual identity, nothing fixed/unchangeable -identities multiple, many ways combine identities; Identity construction always arbitrary depend on context -back and forth, no such thing as stable sexual identity WOMEN & EDUCATION -school agent of socialization -girls: taught be obedient, nice, respectful, quiet, etc -boys: taught be independence of thought, rationality, competition, dominance, etc -gender roles perpetuated even in schools despite being tacit >TITLE IX (1972)- federal law prohibiting sex discrimination in federally funded education programs and Activities, academics and state sponsored athletic programs -diff/gap btw formal provisions (TITLE IX) and actual practices -women discouraged taking ?hard sciences?- math, physics- rational, scientific, rigorous/time consuming -women encouraged to do ?soft sciences?-social sciences, humanities -hidden/subtle bias- everyday/mundane level >tracking/streaming- dividing students into groups that receive diff instruction on basis of assumed similarities in ability of achievement -students higher academic tracks continue do better; related to race, class, gender -diff kinds of opportunities get created based on what disciplines get privileged -?high stakes tests? (SATs)- boys often do better -psychological lvl, self-fulfilling prophecy >Complex cycle of educational performance -gender, race, class- limited opportunities in networks/resources -supplemented by narrow ways of socialization -girls often get side tracked, lower aspirations, underachievers, negative stereotypes, develop low self-esteem ->limited opportunities -body image trumps academic/athletic achievement emphasis on body image >boys also constrained- discipline/masculinity (Anderson ex: boys being called ?fag?, not apply girls) -women excluded in academia (higher levels education), why inclusion important? -equal opportunity -academia- sphere where knowledge/ideologies get produced and transmitted to society -science and knowledge perceived as being free of bias/objective/?rational?/value-neutral -knowledge system excludes women and perpetuates male-centered view >Evelyn Fox Keller -science/gender system -network of associations btw concepts of masculinity& femininity & constructions of science- man-made -feminist revision of science- inclusive, reflective, critical -redress/address inequality in knowledge systems- make knowledge more humanistic >feminist standpoint theory -all knowledge shaped by context/location, all perspectives partial, tentative, incomplete -women and marginalized groups able to reflect & evaluate on social systems more b/c discrimination/disadvantages they face -bottom-up perspective of society >Patricia Hill Collins -?outsiders within? Anderson pg 309 -especially relevant to women scholars of color -trained in methodologies of particular disciplines w/i academia -marginalized by dominant sections w/i academia->outsiders in academia -b/c of that, very marginalization, women of color have unique, critical insights to offer WOMEN & WORK -work: activities/tasks that are paid for/remunerated, come work done w/o pay -some women work ?invisible?, unnoticed, no remuneration >Arlie Hochschild -emotional labor: work that might be remunerated in wages; involves intense, difficult tasks of appeasing or favorabely managing clients/customer?s emotions (women more than men) -involves putting up false front-stressful -gender segregation/typing in economy/work force-certain jobs disproportionally associated w/ men/women >second shift- dual responsibilities of women; job in formal work sphere, 2nd shift of housework at home >gender gap in wages: -equal pay act (1963)- employers provide equal pay for same jobs -since gender segregation and faced w/ male resistance, sexist/paternalistic attitudes, gap still Exist -women excluded from well-established networks in labor force -why women less network? -relatively new entrants, paternalistic attitudes/insecurity, women?s abilities underestimated -women themselves feel inadequate-differential socialization, women relationships w/ particular other; men- generalized other -responsibilities entrusted to women make difficult to be part of these networks >glass ceiling -invisible mechanisms to women?s advancement remain in place, preventing earning promotions and upward mobility in general -women?s promotions are lateral, not vertical >Feminization of Poverty -gender diff in poverty; mostly women and children under poverty line -poverty line- based on lowest cost for nutritionally adequate diet -most jobs gender segregated- women do low paid jobs/unemployed -women headed households/single mothers taking care of entire family >institutionalized policies to address inequalities in formal workforce -Equal pay act -Compareable worth- compare pay lvls of jobs held disproportionally by women to those held disproportionally by men & try to adjust pay so women and men working in female dom jobs aren?t penalized -problem: assume jobs can be ranked objectively according to skills, work conditions, etc -Affirmative action: making special advantages available to women/minorities to address their exclusion to certain occupations, edu system, etc -controversial: think unfair advantage, everyone should be able to compete equally
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