Diversity diversity 1. accept and respect differences 2. primary and secondary differences 3. individual and group differences 4. social and cultural norms cultures - value systems (generation to generation) - represent a pattern of human knowledge, belief, & behavior - values, language, religion, ideals, behaviors, artistic expressions, etc. created by a group of people > american culture is materialistic, individualist, patriotic, etc. - iceberg model of the culture (2 levels of cultures) 1. observable cultures - dress, language, etc. 2. hidden cultures - assumptions, values, & ideas privileges in a dominant group privilege - right, power, advantage, and favor granted to an individual or group of people - privileges like education, ability to obtain wealth, & gender privileges challenges to diversity - racism & prejudice - white privilege - stereotypes - ethnocentrism attitude toward diversity - awareness - tolerance - appreciation immigrant families & household structures - family household - two or more people living together who are related through marriage, birth, or adoption - non family household - two or more unrelated people who share living quarters > vary across ethnic groups cultural sensitivity - knowledge about cultural differences > personal space, smiling, eye contact, touch, silence, time concept - dialogue instead of judgement - stages of cultural sensitivity 1. fear 2. denial 3. defense/superiority 4. minimization 5. acceptance/relativism 6. adaptation/empathy 7. integration structural diversity theory - families and individuals are shaped through their interaction with social structures and forces - families are socially constructed and historically changed - family diversity is produced by the very structures that organize society as a whole - family diversity is constructed through social structures and human agency - understanding family diversity requires interdisciplinary perspectives Immigration History & American's New Family Portraits foreign born population native population four waves of immigration 1. colonization wave - 1600 to 1820 - 600,000 people (europeans & blacks) 2. frontier expansion wave - 1820 to 1870 - 7.4 million people (most from europe) 3. industrialization wave - 1880 to 1925 - 25 million people 4. globalization wave - 1965 to present - 26.4 million people > american has the most immigrants individuals present in the US - citizens - native born - naturalized - aliens - undocumented ....... myths about immigrant past > plymoth rock > statue of liberty > melting pot & tossed salad acculturation - a certain group that modifies their culture by adopting traits from the host culture - factors related to acculturation: where they live, social standing in their homeland, education, occupational skill, reason, & time for immigration (age, etc.) dissonant acculturation - within a family (generations) additive acculturation - they identify with their own culture but also add ideas of the host culture (usually good SES, etc.) degree of assimilation - how much of the culture's traits are adopted ethnic identity - how much of their own culture they keep > americanized > bicultural > disenchanted > functional US families as immigrants factors: - time of arrival - push/pull factors (general theory about immigration) - volume of immigration - characteristics of the immigrants - characteristics of the receiving culture - immigration laws and social policies - place/living conditions at arrival - concentration in ghettos/dispersal into surrounding population info about immigrants - where are they from? > latin america - 53% > asia - 25% > europe - 14% - where do they live? > CA (9 out of 31 million in 2000), NY, TX, FL, IL, NJ -- what influences and problems will immigrants bring to lives of native residents in this country? are there any changes you experiences? -- what reactions should we take in education? what should we teach to those immigrant children: dominant culture or teach from the perspective of a particular culture? Immigration and Education what should we teach in the classroom? > e.d. hirsch - cultural literacy > a. schlesinger jr. - core value - cultural unity and cultural diversity - empowerment through multicultural education - empowerment vs. benevolent helping - providing intellectual tools for creating a just society - some actions in empowerment - integration of content of ethnic cultures into curriculum - consciousness raising > paul freire - critical pedagogy - educating for cultural power Socialization and family values socialization - process through which a child acquires the beliefs, attitudes, behavior, and values of a culture and learns the social and interpersonal skills needed to function effectively in society - socialization is learning - to function effectively in the society/group > socialization process is related to power structure - the intervention from the government (american indian) - family power structure (equal or unequal) > different values lead to various child rearing components of socialization 1. primary socialization - racial/ethnic socialization - a process communicating messages about race or ethnicity to children 2. anticipatory socialization 3. gender socialization 4. resocialization 5. total institutions agents of socialization - family - school - peer groups - mass media - work place, the state, religion racial/ethnic socialization - special socialization tasks for minorities - racial/ethnic pride (history & tradition) - preparation for bias - promotion of mistrust (say things such as to not trust whites) - egalitarianism family socialization methods 1. verbal communication - implicit vs. explicit 2. nonverbal communication - modeling racial/ethnic behaviors - structuring children's environment - selectively reinforcing children's behaviors 3. proactive vs. reactive messages socialization in african american families 1. extended kinship system > impact on children - strong sense of family obligation - frequent interaction with relatives - frequent extended family get togethers - a system of mutual aid 2. role of mother, grandmother, & father > mothers are primary caregivers, followed by grandmothers, and then fathers in multigenerational households > in mother absent families, grandmothers were more involved in control and punishment > presence of grandmothers increases in the moral/religious emphasis in the household 3. obedience > stresses obedience to adults and may involve physical discipline - parents have been seen as harsh and strict 4. high value on children > a family's esteem and worth are often related to the presence of children > many parents consider their children to be their contribution to society 5. nurturing firmness > disciplinary style is sometimes referred to as being parent centered rather than child centered because it does not primarily take into account the desires of the child > more physical discipline > firm, caring, and uncompromising > mothers of lower SES combine physical measures with very high doses of emotional nurturance 6. teaching children how to cope with racism > fostering a sense of ethnic pride > necessary to teach them to comfortable with their blackness due to the hostile social environment > 2 out of 3 parents indicated that they spoke or acted in a manner intended to racially socialize children > mothers were more likely than fathers to educate children about race socialization in american indian families 1. collective cooperative social network > extended family - give rise to village like characteristics even in urban areas > tribal identity 2. role of grandparents > grandparents retain an official and symbolic leadership role - they monitor children's behavior and have a voice in child rearing 3. values a. present time orientation b. respect for elders c. identity with the group d. cooperation and partnership e. living in harmony with nature values for pueblo indians - harmony with nature vs. mastery over nature - present time vs. future time - cooperation vs. competition - anonymity vs. individuality - submissiveness vs. aggressiveness - work for present needs vs. work to get ahead - sharing wealth now vs. saving wealth for self - time is flexible vs. time is inflexible 4. socialization tasks > culture > living skills > religious leadership and medical skills 5. attitudes toward children > regarded as spiritual beings coming to parents' lives > respected highly > the impact of boarding schools - depriving lessons of being the loving parents 6. require children to be patient and control emotions socialization in latino families 1. extended family - godparent system > respect elders even after grown > family responsibility is more important than individual concerns 2. two parent family has more strict gender roles 3. strong identification with groups 4. sensitivity in interpersonal relationships > socialized to be sensitive to the feelings and needs of others and to personalize interpersonal relationships > encourages development of cooperative social motives and discourages individual competitive behaviors that set apart the individual from the group socialization in filipino american families - mutual support and loyalty in the family and kin systems - smooth interpersonal relationship - egalitarian marital relationship - emphasize obedience and dependence from children four groups : 1. 1920s - workers in railroads, farmers 2. descendants of 1st group 3. came after WWII 4. came after 1960s for economic reasons socialization in chinese american families - extended family vs. nuclear family - more egalitarian marital relationship - emphasis on family and filial piety - high achievement orientation Gender Roles gender roles - they are characteristics, attitudes, feelings, and behaviors that society expects of males and females - socially constructed rather than innate or inherent > society, culture, and history define the meaning androgyny - belief that men and women share a variety of human traits that should be encouraged in both factors related to gender roles - biological, economic, social, and cultural - cultural difference on gender role socialization - related to expectation and responsibilities - related to power > sexism - attitudes, action, or institutional structure that subordinates or limits a person on the basis of sex > female as a subordinate group - patriarchy - gender and immigration > women's responsibility of protecting cultural tradition > conflict between gender roles in new and home cultures gender socialization in families - sex differences exist naturally - how children learn about their gender 1. psychoanalytic theory 2. social learning theory 3. cognitive theory 4. gender schema theory 5. social interactionist theory - gender differences between boys and girls - role of parents - teachers' differential treatment of boys and girls gender stereotypes - gendered traits and gendered activities assigned to one gender more than the other > impacts on individuals - block women's advancement - influence the family relationship (involvement of men as father and husband) - some emerging concerns for boys and men > fight against gender stereotypes and sexism - feminist movement - 1972 federal legislation IX - required equal treatment in schools for boys and girls > gender inequality around the world social indicators of women's status 1. education 2. employment 3. income changes and stability in gendered families > women are much more involved in paid work today - less housework and less childcare - men engage in family work a little more than before > the role strain for women > social policies and economic systems > feminist movement > women labor force participation african american gender roles - black women suffer the most from gender discrimination but many feel their main battle is racism rather than sexism - black males are stereotypically perceived as financially irresponsible, uninvolved in their children's lives, etc. vietnamese families - traditional relationship between family members - women are expected to play role of the subordinate (often like 2nd class citizens) - women are 4x more likely to be illiterate - young women are supposed to keep an image of a virtuous woman - obedience is expected from all children throughout lives vietnamese american families - women encounter more opportunities for work outside the home - obedience is only expected until marriage - adolescent women deal with a double standard because they are expected to be morally superior to men korean families - in traditional families, the authority belongs to the father and is superior in almost all spousal relationships - main source of tension is gradual acquisition of economic power by wives - wives start to take over traditional male roles american asian indian families - children are monitored closely because the parents are afraid of them losing indian culture - girls are not allowed to date and many families still practice idea of arranged marriages - take more pride in US than when in india vietnamese american families - traditional relationships between family members > husbands and wives > parents and children - expectation for girls what are the common experiences that families from different ethnic groups share? 1. marriage relationship 2. women's role 3. broadening of gender attitudes 4. masculinity and femininity 5. androgyny Cohabitation, marriage, and intermarriage marriage - a multifaceted bond between commitment, love, and intimacy > the number of unmarried couple households has increased sevenfold since the 1970s > a study of whites shows a "u shaped" curve (honeymoon phase, down after having children, up again after children have grown) > a study of mexican americans showed different results (based on gender and length of marriage) endogamy - when people marry within their group (homogamy) exogamy - when people choose to marry outside of their group (heterogamy) influences on marriage - law - culture/religion - social status - social gender expectation - traditions and values from the original families mate selection > arranged marriage - kin or community orientation - economic consideration : india's arranged marriage - dowry and caste > polygamy and monogamy, polyandry, and group marriage > individualized selection in post modern societies - factors causing change: 1. mobility of the society 2. education 3. feminist movement - illusory freedom - arranged by status, education, and work setting, etc. > intermarriage - related to group size, heterogeneity, sex ratio, group controls, cultural similarities, romantic love complex - interracial and interethnic marriage vary by race and sex - white and asian americans > white and hispanics > white and african americans - men are more likely why marry? 1. provide a context for having children 2. religious and cultural reasons 3. establish property relations between kinship groups 4. gain and maintain status in society 5. share lives out of desire for love and companionship 6. beneficial for personal well being - economic, mental, and healthy benefits 7. caution in generalization issue - gender difference - racial/social class difference - individual difference marital success > marital stability > marital quality - marital satisfaction measure > 10 item likert-type scale where people indicate how often certain things husbands and wives may do together take place with their spouse on a scale from 1 to 5 > either scored a "positive interaction" or a "negative sentiment" - correlates of marital quality 1. shared social characteristics 2. economic and personal resources 3. dual earner couples 4. communication 5. social class 6. children marriage patterns 1. life long 2. sequential monogamy 3. non marital cohabitation ideal american family in the 50s-70s 1. marriage is a dominating life goal for both men and women 2. marriage should be a life long commitment 3. should produce happiness for both partners based on love and free choice - internal conflict is taboo - partners should be free to leave unhappy marriages 4. married couples should have children 5. childhood should be prolonged and protected - children should not have adult responsibilities or privileges 6. sex should be confined to marriage 7. husbands and wives should follow traditional roles 8. individual vales should be sought in family living - the family should exist for its members, not vice versa recent trends in marriage - single adults increase - cohabitation increases - age at first marriage increases - family size decreases - interracial marriages increase > african american women with whites - divorce rate declines since 1981 - remarriage is common african americans - women desire to marry - women "settle" instead of waiting for mr. right - complain about "unavailability" of eligible black men > 1/3 of black men are in prison > the death rate of black men is the highest of any race-sex category - men keep options open because "someone else" may come along - more black women finish college and become financially independent > these women do not desire to "marry down" asian indians - arranged marriages are common - many young asian indians find arranged marriages appealing - some of the youth may choose "semi arranged" marriages - an even smaller number prefer open dating - willingness to settle for green card in lieu of dowry asian americans - out marriage is generally not favorable - second generation are diverse in their beliefs about out marriage but are concerned with disappointing family members > they believe in romantic love and freedom & individual choice - most choose partners along the same racial and ethnic lines - in out marriage there is danger of impurity, contamination, or having a mixed race child > impurity threatens family honor and can break the family line Work experience, discrimination, and family life commuter marriage - married partners live and work in different areas and get together only intermittently, such as over weekends changing work patterns 1. women's employment > increased labor force participation of US women - racial difference - married women with children > causes : - changes in economy - decline in real earning - personal fulfillment > problems of women workers - job availability - lack of child care 2. men's employment > decreased participation - racial difference > causes : - structural unemployment - redistribution of jobs - decline in real wages 3. children's employment > decreased adolescent employment > free lance work integrating work and family - work/family interference > spill over - family factors > dual worker families - advantages and disadvantages for women > marital stress > mother's employment and children > work and family priorities among women - wife as sole provider > single parent families factors influencing interaction between work and family 1. gender inequality 2. work characteristics 3. time squeeze 4. geographic mobility 5. type of work coping with work and family - family coping strategies - gendered strategies > reduction in women's working hours > split shift parenting > sequencing > mommy track and daddy track - family supportive government and employer responses > family and medical leave act of 1993 > paid maternity leave is not a standard - gender inequality > less female participation, less paid > discrimination - gender one of the most commonly reported reasons african american commuter families > conditions related to coping with lifestyle - relationship is stable - connection with friends and participation in black community can remain strong - both partners value career advancement and careers that maximize the potential of the job holder - apply these values to both spouses > advantages - meaningful personal expression - enhanced family dynamics - career advantages - combat employment limitations, assumptions, and racial stereotypes > disadvantages - stress of a complex lifestyle - alienation, isolation haitian families - human capitol - education, skills, and work experience that can help one find a job - the most important variable in determining an individual's economic status > haitians who have excellent human capitol in their country come to the US, do not know the dominant language, and much of their human capitol becomes irrelevant - social capitol - friends, relatives, co-ethnics, and others who can ease access to economic resources - secondary sector - jobs that are semiskilled or unskilled, primarily blue collar that offer low wages and benefits and few opportunities for advancement > differences between 2 waves of immigrants from haiti : - 1960s : very well educated - 1970s : not educated and illiterate (government) central american workers > what are push factors form central america? - civil unrest and political repression - no jobs - family responsibilities shouldered by women > what are pull factors to DC? - corporate and diplomatic ties to central america - shortage of domestic service workers in DC which created job conduit for women - DC building boom meant plenty of jobs > how do central american women contribute to establish ethnic enclave foothold in DC? - built social networks - provided services to newcomers > what are characteristics of working as a private household laborer in domestic work (maids, nannies, etc.)? - isolating, dead end, low wage, no benefits, upward advancement not likely chinese american family business > what types of chinese family firms are there? - owned and run by nuclear family - owned and managed by siblings - owned and managed by core group of kin with outside employees > what role does confucianism play in chinese family firms? - values family as important - values family as a hierarchical order - values deference and child service - values ancestors as inspiration for success > what benefits do family firms have? - employee trust and loyalty - able to pay low or no wages to many workers (children, wives) - long hours at work can be combined with some family - ease of training family members in business operations - control of info or trade secrets
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