1. Homo ergaster- The next hominid to evolve from which homo erectus was descended. About 1.8 million years ago. Homo erectus (upright man) developed about 1.5 BCE. The first hominid to make precise stone tools, to a predetermined shape, requiring a major advance in brain-power about 2/3 of the modern human brain. They were the 1st hominid to move out of Africa to Asia and Europe. Tools are the evidence. The “handaxe” is the tool their best known for, also known as “Acheulian” discovered in Southern France. It could have been used from slicing, chopping, or digging. Despite its origin the majority were located in Africa. Some are decorated perhaps for religious reasons and may have been for the deliberate burying of the dead. They showed the first signs of use in regular seasonal camps and cooperative hunting efforts as apposed to scavenging. They were also the first hominids to learn to control and use fire. Between 1.5 million years and 200,000 years ago it is believed that homo erectus and all other hominids became extinct. 2. Nilo-Saharan- 1 of the 4 major languages located in the East with Maasai as a sub-group. They fished, hunted, and gathered. They used Stone blades and spears. They had non-theistic beliefs. Originated between the Nubian Mountains and the middle Nile probably began by Afro-Asiatic ancester. 3. Afro-Asiatic- Located between the Nile cataracts of Northern Sudan, the Red Sea and the Ethiopian highlands. They specialized in collecting wild grasses and roots. This is 1 of the 4 major language families located in the north with Ethiopian and Berber sub-groups. They had a clan-based community including clan deity worship. Lived in rectangle houses with flat or sloping roofs. Their music consisted of stringed instruments and no percussion. They danced by swaying their bodies and did various footwork. 4. Khoisan- In the Late Stone Age, were hunter-gatherers that depended upon cooperative labour and communal effort for survival. Men and women were considered equals. One of the 4 major African Languages located in the south with Bushmen as a sub-group. They lived in small round huts. There was no hereditary leadership. Music and dance consisted of single, rhythmic beat and a stringed instrument. They painted rock art and had non-theistic beliefs. Believed to orginated in Tanzania. 5. Niger-Congo- One of the 4 major language groups located in the West with Bantu as a sub-group. Were fishermen, yam cultivators, and used the hook and line for fishing. They were clan-based, with matrilineal descent- track lineage through mother. They had a hereditary clan chief and lived in compacts villages in rectangle houses. They had such skilled crafts as waving, pottery, and wood carving. Their music and dance consisted of percussion and polyrhythmic beats. They had a polytheistic religion. 6. Hominids- There is a great number of hominid species. About 10-5 million years ago moved out of the tropical forest to the savanna grasslands. Ex- Lucy 7. Stone Age- 3-1.5 million BCE. Emergence of Homo habilis in Early Stone Age. Middle Stone 1 BCE-40,000 Evolution of Homo sapiens. During this period, technology quickened. Late Stone Age- Homo sapiens sapiens developed and created microlith. A major hunting advance with the invention of the bow and arrow. Fine bone tools were also developed such as: awls, needles, fish-hooks, and barbs for arrows or harpoons. Signs of art also emerged by rock paintings illustrating people wearing eggshell beads. Hunted with poison arrows and used more traps, pits, spears, and axes. Used all of the animal, used bones for making tools or ornaments and skins for leather. Fishing evolved and bone-tipped harpoons, tidal traps, and possibly nets were used. Gathering accounted for ¾ of their diets. Usually lived in small family sized groups depending on the region. 8. Homo habilis (handy man)- The tool-makers evolution was about 2.5 million years ago. They are the first tool makers with a brain capacity of ½ the modern human. Made tools such as Oldowan (discovered in the Olduvai Gorge in Kenya). They were chopping and cutting tools, made by chopping flakes off a volcanic pebble to form a sharp edge. Some flakes were probably used for cutting or scraping skins and perhaps whittling sticks. 9. Australopithecines (Southern Ape)- about 5-3 million years ago. Mostly scavengers and had a brain capacity of 1/3 the modern human. Did not make tools used whatever they found around them. 10. Homo sapiens (wise man)- Emerged about 200,000 years ago and had a brain capacity of almost a modern human. Evolved in Africa and moved into Asia and Europe. Bone began to be used for making tools. Tools were more varied and precise because a new technique was developed for striking stone flakes from a pre-prepared “core.” This reduced waste and the makers could concentrate on the best stone for the job like obsidian, a hard volcanic glass-like rock capable of producing a very sharp edge. The flakes were touched up and improved for better “knives” and scrapers. Some were probably used for spear-heads, attached to wooden shafts by vegetable glue and twine. This evidence suggests positive advances in individual hunting techniques. There was greater use for fire and camps became more organized. Shelters were built out of branches, grass, and stones, and in the cooler climates of northern and southern Africa people lived in caves. Homo sapiens sapiens evolved next about 120,000 to 90,000 years ago. They have the same brain capacity as modern humans and evolved in the savanna woodlands of eastern and southern Africa. By 60,000 years ago, they could be found across Africa and had begun to travel to Europe and Asia. The earliest were located in the tropical Africa and were similar in appearance as modern Africans. Those in the heat developed brown-skin while ones in cooler regions developed pale skin. They lived in the Late Stone age and developed the key feature of the microlith meaning tiny stone. Stone flakes were shaped and reshaped into tiny precise points and blades sometimes into geometric shapes like crescents. The thick edge of the blade was chipped back to make it steeper and stronger and were almost certainly hafted on to wooden shafts to form spears and even arrows. The bow and arrow was one of the major hunting advances during this era. 11. Australopithecus- later species lived alongside homo habilis but could not compete with them for food and thus were extinct by 1.5 BCE. 12. mitochondrial Eve- Theory that all modern humans come from one women that lived that lived about 150,000 years ago, “Eve.” DNA matches up 99.9 % responsible for all modern humans. 13. Tropical rainforest- 14. Savanna 15. Desert 16. Tundra 17. paleolithic era- Occurring in the Late Stone Age, it was the age of hunting and gathering. Until 92,000 years ago humans were nomadic. The men hunted the women gathered. There were no communities, survival kept men and women equal. Their social organization was confined to elementary and extended families with customs and laws. 18. Neolithic Revolution (New Stone)- Nomads settled in communities. It was a movement from subsidence to surplus. Developed new tools in order to begin farming. Stones were ground against harder stones. Food was grown and stored. Occurred about 9000-3000 BCE. There was now a division of labor such as craftsmen. They began to acquire a surplus enabling them to begin trade. Communities began to work together and needed cooperation and planning. Men hunted and farmed while the women cared for the children, farmed and did domestic work. Effects were: negative- people came in contact with animals which spread diseases more rapidly, mortality and population increased, led to classes of people, and led to cities. 19. nomad- People that move from place to place in search of food. 20. Ancient Egypt- They are Afro-Asiatic speakers and were the first to harvest wild grains of the Nile. Moved to the nile around 5000 BCE at the end of the wet period. The Nile has two main river feeds that include the White Nile flowing from the Great Lakes of east Africa and the Blue Nile that flows from the Ethiopian Highlands. The river flooded every year so at first no irrigation was needed. Between 5000-4000 BCE permanent farming communities were set up and became divided into two states, Upper and Lower Egypt, around 3500 BCE. Around 3100 BCE Narmer conquered Egypt beginning the dynasty period, starting the oldest known civilization lasting about 3000 years. The majority of people were peasants that farmed wheat, barley, and flax paying the surplus in taxes to the pharaoh. Herded cattle and goats but rarely ate the meat because this privilege was reserved for the pharaoh. Taxes due were overseen by the civil servants of the pharaoh consisting of scribes and tax collectors. The taxes were based on the flood level for that year. Their government was a bureaucracy with each region containing a governor and was easily reach via the Nile. Developed first system of writing known as hieroglyphics and wrote on papyrus. The Ancient Egyptians studied astronomy, mathematics, developed the 1st 12-month, 365 days a year calander, the Nilometer to record the rise and fall of the Nile, and the water-clock to measure the time of the day. Worshiped over 2000 gods including Re- sun god and Amun- wind god. Old Kingdom- 2685-2200 BCE- Step pyramid built at Saqqara (oldest major stone building in the world) built by Imhotep for King Zoser. Great Pyramid built at Giza in 2600 BCE and took 20 years to make for King Khufu. Regional princes becoming more powerful and recover local powers. Increased foreign trade. All foreign trade went through central government. Middle Kingdom- 2040-1670- Central authority re-established by the King of Thebes. Expansion of trade through Red Sea to East African coast. 1900 BCE- revival of pyramid building and development of irrigated agriculture at the Fayum. Conquest of Nubia to 2nd cataract. Depression occurs. Combined the gods Re and Amun to for AmunRe. 1670- 1st invasion by the Hyksos. New Kingdom- 1570-1085- Thebian Kings drive out Hyksos. Kings buried in rock tombs in Valley of Kings instead of in pyramids. Introduction of large standing army and become a major power. Conquest of Palestine, Syria and Nubia to 4th Cataract. Massive statues and temples built by Rameses II. War with Hittites of Turkey. Exodus of Israelites under Moses. Went to war with Libyans. Capital was moved from Memphis in Lower Egypt to Thebes in Upper Egypt. 1000-300 BCE- The Late Period- 1050- Palestine and Nubia break away from Egyptian Empire. Dynasty founded by Libyan mercenaries who had been serving in the Egyptian army. Dynasties of Delta princes. The Kushite or “Ethiopian” Dynasty. Assyrian invasion. Delta princes expelled Assyrians. 664-525 Necho’s Canal to Red Sea. Persian dynasty and brief Egyptian dynasties. 332- Last conquest of Egypt by the Greek by Alexander the Great ruled by his general Ptolemy and ruled until the death of Cleopatra and the Roman conquest of 30 BCE. 21. Vizier- The pharaohs adviser. 22. Pharaohs- They are rulers of Egypt and claimed to be direct descendants of the gods. From 3100- 332 BCE there were about 30 dynasties. 23. Nubia 24. Late Stone Age African villages 25. Cheik Ante Diop 26. Imhotep 27. The Nok 28. Meroe 29. Iron smelting technology 30. Kush 31. Carthage 32. Bantu 33. Early Iron Age 34. Proto-Bantu 35. kin-based society Hominid Timeline- 5-3 million years ago Australopithecines 2.5 BCE- homo habilis 1.8 BCE- homo ergaster 1.5 BCE- Australopithecus becomes extinct, 1.75- 1 BCE emergence of homo erectus 1 BCE- 40,000- Evolution of Homo sapiens. 200,000 years ago. 120,000-90,000 years ago emergence of homo sapiens sapiens. Chap 1 2 main themes: 1. Movement of people and ideas over great distances. 2. Isolation and self-containment of individual communites.