a group of emotional, cognitive and behavioral symptoms that cause distress or significant problems.
the scientific study of trouble-some feelings, thoughts and behaviors associated with mental diorders
criteria for being abnormal
deviance from the norm, difficulties adapting to life's demands and experience of personal distress.
interferes with a persons life, including ability to care for ones self, have good relationships with others and function well at school or work.
study mental problems to see how disorders develop and continue and how they can be prevented and alleviated.
deviance from the norm
advantages: we use our own judgement or gut feeling, once statistical or objective cutoff scores are established they are easy to apply
deviance from the norm
limitations: different cultures have different ideas about what normal is, statistically deviant behaviors may be valued (high intelligence), arbitrary cutoffs (is a score fo 80 much different then a score of 81?)
difficulty adapting to lifes demands
advantages: typically easy to observe if someone is having difficulty, often prompts people to seek psychological treatment.
difficulty adapting to lifes demands
limitations: unclear who determines impairment or whether a consensus about impairment is required, thresholds for impairment not always clear
experience of personal distress
advantages: hallmark of many forms of mental disorders, individuals may be able to accurately report this.
experience of personal distress
limitations: some psychological problems are not associated with distress, thresholds or cutoffs for distress are not always clear.
They thought you could be possessed by a demon. So how do you treat someone who has a demon problem? Exorcism, drill a hole into someone’s brain (you don’t want it to be a nice place for the demon to live), therapeutic environments, healthy diets, exercise, massage, education, relics, prayer, holy objects, pilgrimages, confinement.
greek and roman thought
therapeutic environments, healthy diets, exercise, massage, education: these would all fix mental disorders.
prayer, holy objects, pilgrimages, confinement
secluding them from the rest of society, chaining people up to keep them away from other people. asylums, paracelus introduced the notion of psychic or mental causes for abnormal behavior and introduced hypnosis.
Some woman said that the mentally ill should be treated right like in hospitals and stuff. so they attempted to create better hospitals and shit.
the science of promoting mental health and thwarting mental disorder through education, early treatment and public health measures.
everyone has the same emotions/thoughts essentially, everyone just experiences different degrees of those emotions and when they get bad thats when you might have abnormal behavior or a mental disorder
public health model
focuses on promoting good health and good health practices to avert disease.
focusing on promoting good mental and physical health and being educated on it and being aware so you cant catch it early on and prevent mental disorders.
targeting large groups of people who have not yet developed a mental disorder.
involves addressing emerging problems while they are still manageable and before they come resistant to intervention.
involves reducing the severity, duration and negative effect of a mental disorder after it has occurred.
becoming a more informed consumer of scientific info on mental health that is often presented in the public press. and to be able to apply research based info to your own life
characterization by others of disgrace or reproach based on an individual characteristic.
when government or other institutional policies negatively affect opportunities for people who may be seen as threatening or less deserving of support.
the general disgrace the public confers on people with mental disorder that can result in prejudice stereotyping and discrimination.
disgrace people assign themselves because of public stigma.
education, promoting personal contact
stigma can be fought in two key words: ____ and ____
ways of looking at things, to piece together why someone has problems
five main models
biological model, psychodynamic model, humanistic model, cognitive-behavioral model, sociocultural model
rest on the assumption that mental states, emotions and behaviors arise from brain function and other physical processes.
biological model was introduced by ____. she noticed various syndromes or clusters of syndromes in people. she also believed that syndroms and symptoms have biological.
two different types of mental disorders, dementia praecox (like schizophrenia) and manic-depressive psychosis (like bi polar). biological model.
kraeplin also believed syndroms to be ____. biological model.
genetic composition of people and is fixed at birth like eye color.
cant change over time. biological model.
an observable characteristic of a person that an change over time. biological model.
scientists study which genetic and environmental influences impact the development of emotions, cognitions and behavior. biological model.
he amount of variation in a phenotype attributed to genetic factors. biological model.
analyzing DNA to identify associations between specific genes and mental disorders. biological model.
central nervous system
includes brian and spinal cord. biological model.
central nervous system
responsible for processing information from our sensory organs such as eyes and ears and prompting the body into motion.
peripheral nervous system
helps control muscles and voluntary movement, regulates the cardiovascular and endocrine systems, assists with digestion and adjusts body temp.
nerve cells. four major components: cell body, dendrites, one or more axons and terminal buttons
small gap between neurons. neurotransmitters go through these.
chemical messengers that allow info to cross the synapse. this is how neurons communicate with each other.
an un used neurotransmitters that went into the synapse, its re absorbed and recycled in this process
this covers much of each hemisphere and is responsible for consciousness, memory attention and other high order areas of human functioning.
front portion of the brain and has important functions such as movement, planning and organization, inhibiting behavior or responses and decision making.
behind the frontal lobe, associated with touch.
at the base of the brain, associated with hearing and memory.
behind parietal and temporal lobes, associated with vision.
focuses on internal mental structures. comes from the freudian theory that assumes that mental states, emotions and behaviors arise from motives and conflicts within a person.
psychologica dynamics that occur within a persons mind. often used with the psychodynamic model.
causes and purposes of human behavior are not always obvious by partly unconscious. psychodynamic model.
hidden realms of emotion, thought and behavior may also affect motives that cause us to act in a certain way. psychodynamic model.
people use defense mechanisms to control anxiety or stress. psychodynamic model.
strategies to cop with anxiety or stressors such as conflit with others. psychodynamic model.
psychodynamic model principal: everything we do has meaning and purpose and is goal-oriented
structure of the mind
major component of the psychodynamic model
portion of personality that is present at birth. purpose is to seem immediate gratification and discharge tension as soon as possible. psychodynamic model.
the id propels us to meet demands of hunger, thirst, aggression or sexual or physical pleasure as soon as possible. psychodynamic model.
form of thinking, if gratification is not immediate-this involves manufacturing a fantasy or mental image of whatever lessons the tension. psychodynamic model.
an organized, rational system that uses higher order thinking processes to obtain gratification. its the executive of the personality. psychodynamic model.
need to delay gratification of impulses to meet environmental demands. psychodynamic model.
involves learning, perception, memory, planning judgement and other higher order thinking processes to plan a workable strategy. psychodynamic model.
develops in early childhood and represents societal ideals and values conveyed by parents through rewards and punishments. ones sense of right and wrong. punishment becomes part of ones conscience and rewards become part of ones ego ideal. psychodynamic model.
freud developed this. these occur early in life and are marked by erogenous zones, or areas of the body through which hedonistic id impulses are expressed. psychodynamic model.
severe difficulties experienced by a child at a psychosexual stage may be expressed later in life as symptoms of mental disorder. psychodynamic model.
delayed psychosexual development
6 months-3 years
3-7 years. sexual organs become prime source of gratification.
5-12 years. lack of overt sexuality or interest
12 years to adulthood. mature expression of sexuality
an unconscious impulse is consciously expressed by its behavioral opposite. psychodynamic model.
an assumption that people project unconscious needs and conflicts onto ambiguous stimuli such as inkblots. psychodynamic model.
asking a client to say whatever comes to mind during the session, without exercising censorship or restraint. psychodynamic model.
what actually happens during the dream. psychodynamic model.
a dreams symbolic or unconscious meaning. psychodynamic model.
understanding the unconscious determinants of irrational feelings, thoughts or behaviors that create problems or distress. psychodynamic model.
occurs when a client reacts to a therapist as if the later is an important figure from childhood. psychodynamic model.
emphasizes human growth, choice and responsibility. people are naturally good and strive for personal growth and fulfillment. humans have choices and are responsible for their own fate
an assumption that ones behavior is determined by perceptions of herself nad others. humanistic model.
humanistic model. hierarchy of needs
maslows hierarchy of needs
physiological (food, water, sleep, survival), safety/security (economic, freedom from threats), social (belonging, acceptance), ego (important projects, recognition from others), self-actualization 9the best one can be) humanistic model.
humanistic model. expanded on maslows beliefs. believed in self concept (one feels differentiated from others in a positive way)
conditional positive regard
carl rogers. an environment in which others set the conditions or standards for ones life. humanistic model.
unconditional positive regard
en environment in which a person is fully accepted as she is and allowed to pursue her own desires and goals. carl rogers. humanistic model.
relies heavily on unconditional positive regard and empathy. humanistic model.
humanistic psychology. existential psychology heavily based on the concept of authenticity: how closely one adheres to ones personality. humanistic model.
believe people are alone in the world and may develop a sense of meaninglessness. humanistic model.
humanistic assessment and treatment
qualitative model: focuses on unique characteristics of a person and often includes general questions about ones perception of the world. humanistic model.
non directive therapy
humanistic. therapist doesn't tell you what to do, they ask you questions to figure out what the problems are and help you realize and help you to come to self actualization. humanistic model.
humanistic model strengths
optimistic, focuses on human choice and growth. tied to contemporary positive psychology (study of what factors allow people to thrive in their environments). humanistic model.
humanistic model treatment
some medication. they also feel that people need to take responsibility for their recovery. humanistic model.
cognitive behavioral model
behavioral focuses on external acts while cognitive focuses on internal thoughts
focuses on environmental stimuli and behavioral responses-variables that can be directly observed and measured. thinks that all behavior is learned. cognitive behavioral model.
he initially studied classical conditioning with dogs and salvation. cognitive behavioral model
learning occurs when a conditioned stimulus (bell) is paired with an unconditional stimulus (meat powder) so future presentations of the CS will result in a conditioned response (salvation). cognitive behavioral model.
behavior followed by positive or pleasurable consequences will likely be repeated but behavior followed by negative consequences such as punishment will not likely be repeated. cognitive behavioral model.
giving something good after a behavior. increases the chances behavior will be repeated.
taking away something bad. increases the chances the behavior will be repeated.
arose from the behavioral perspective because people often behave in ways that have little to do with reinforcement.
beliefs or expectations that represent a network of accumulated knowledge. cognitive behavioral model.
irrational, inaccurate thoughts people have about environmental events. cognitive behavioral model.
cognitive behavioral model. arbitrary inference: reaching a conclusion based on little evidence. and personalization: erroneously blaming oneself for events.
cognitive behavioral model.
learning principals and cognitions interact to influence a persons behavior.
cognitive behavioral model. learning by imitating and observing others. aka vicarious conditioning.
comines classical and operant conditioning and accommodates internal states like fear or pain as a driving or motivating factor that influences behavior. cognitive behavioral model.
cognitive behavioral model. evaluating antecedents and consequences of behavior, or what preceded and followed certain behaviors. you do this by observing someone.
cognitive behavioral therapy
a large collection of treatment techniques to change patterns of thinking and behaving that contribute to a persons problems.
people sometimes perceive their world and make assumptions in ways that lead to problematic behavior. cognitive behavioral model.
cognitive behavioral model. approach used to treat anxiety related concerns. client first relaxes. then they construct a hierarchy of situations or objects related to the feared stimulus then approach each level one at a time. cognitive behavioral model.
key element of systematic decentralization. it involves directly confronting a feared stimulus. this can be done gradually or, the case of flooding, the client is immediately exposed to the stimulus. cognitive behavioral model.
cognitive behavioral model. a reinforcement system for certain behaviors in which tokens or points are given for positive behaviors and exchanged later for tangible rewards.
outside sources play a major role in creating a persons psychological problem. places a greater influence on outside factors.
the unique behavior and lifestyle shared by a group of people
clusters of people who share cultural traits and who use those traits to distinguish themselves from others.
culture bound syndromes
culturally shared beliefs and ideas can lead to particular forms of stress that in turn lead to ____
____ can help cause mental disorder but can also influence how people cope with it. like family suicide. can also influence mental disorders by shaping the content of symptoms.
one's awareness of being male or female, it is influenced by parenting style and interactions with others.
family systems perspective
assumes each family to have its own rules and organizational structure, or hierarchy of authority and decision making
overly rigid and dont adapt well to changes within or outside the family
family members who operate independently from one another with little parental supervision.
situations where parents avoid talking about shit by always having their children in convos.
features of family functioning. like, family affect: the degree to which a family is cohesive, organized and free of conflict, family activity: the degree to which families engage in cultural, recreational or religious activities together, family control: the degree to which a family is flexible when adapting to new sitautions
the degree to which family interactions are marked by emotional over involvement, hostility and criticism.
biological or psychological predisposition to disorder. they are often genetic or biological, but some are psychological
diathesis stress model
a combo of predisposition and stress produces psychological problems.
cause of mental disorders
diathesis' or vulnerabilities are ____ for mental disorders
a combo of stress and ____ produces mental disorders.
can influence perception and experience of stress as well as life course and choice of experiences
the study of patterns of disease or disorder in the general population.
often focus on incidence and prevalence or mental disorder.
new cases of a mental disorder within a specific time period such as a month or year
refers to all cases of a mental disorder, new and existing cases, within a time period
life time prevalence
proportion of those who have had a mental disorder at any time in your life
national comorbidity survey replication
representative, community based survey of about 10,000 people aged 18 years and older. it included structured interviews to assess people for major mental disorders
refers to the presence of two or more disorders in a person and is a significant concern for mental health professionals.
significant differences in disorder expression depending on demographic features such as age or gender.
anxiety, mood and substance use
disorders are especially common.
an individual or environmental characteristic the precedes a mental disorder and is correlated with that disorder
individual risk factors
genetic predisposition, low birth weight and premature birth, neuropsychological deficits, language disabilities, etc
family risk factors
severe marital discord, overcrowding or large family size, paternal criminality, maternal mental disorder and admission to foster care.
community/social risk factors
violence, poverty, community disorganization, racism, sexism, inadequate schools, etc.
the opposite of risk factors. can be biological social or psychological.
ability to withstand and rise above extreme adversity.
thwarting the development of later problems and may be more efficient and effective than individual treatment after mental disorder occurs.
prevention, treatment, maintenance
____ occurs before a disorder develops, ____ occurs before a disorder develops and ____ occur long after a disorder has developed for people whos symptoms require on going attention
purest form of prevention, an intervention is given to people with no signs of a disorder
large groups of people not affected by a particular problem are targeted to reduce new cases of a disorder. this targets everyone. like warning against drug abuse.
addressing problems while they are manageable and before they are more resistant to treatment
people at risk for a particular problem are targeted
reducing the duration and further negative effects of a mental disorder after onset. goal is to stabilize symptoms.
targets individuals who are at very high risk for developing extensive problems in the future. unlike tertiary, these people have not yet developed a full blown mental disorder.
promoting responsible decision making and providing accurate info about how much alcohol is consumed by college students
signs of suicide
school based prevention program with two main componets: eductional (with videos and stuff) and ACT if you think a peer is suicidal (Acknowledge the signs, let the person know you Care and Tell a responsible adult.)
a large class of frequently observed syndromes composed of abnormal behaviors or features that occur in a person
rules that outline how many and what features of a mental disorder must be present
we can best view abnormal behavior along a ____.
diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorderss
mental disorder or diagnosis. includes a group of abnormal behaviors or number of symptoms associated with distress, significant work or interpersonal problems or likelihood of future problems.
advantages of diagnosis
communication (a shit ton of info can be conveyed in a single term), standard rules are provided for defining mental disorders, clinicians can find useful assessment strategies because everyone uses the same system
arranging mental disorders into broad categories or classes based on similar features.
major clinical disorders that often emerge and end in the life cycle. like anxiety, mood, eating, substance abuse etc.
disorders that are more lifelong in nature. like personality disorders and mental retardation
current medical conditions relevant to treating or understanding a persons axis 1 or axis 2 disorder.
highlights psychosocial and environmental problems relevant to diagnosis, treatment and outcome.
involves a quantitive estimate of a persons overall level of functioning.
evaluating a persons strengths and weaknesses and understanding the problem at hand to develop a treatment
consistency of scores or responses.
test re-test reliability
the extent to which a person provides similar answers to the same test items over time.
the extent to which to raters or observers agree about their ratings or judgements of a persons behavior
internal consistency reliability
refers to whether items on a test appear to be measuring the same thing.
the extent to which an assessment technique measures what it is supposed to measure
the degree to which test or interview items actually cover aspects of the variable or diagnosis under study
refers to whether test or interview results accurately predict some future behavior or event.
refers to whether current test or interview results relate to an important present feature or characteristic.
refers to whether test or interview results relate to other measures or behaviors in a logical, theoretical expected fshion
refers to administering or conducting assessment measures in the same way for everyone.
is the most common assessment technique and is used to solicite a wide range of info about mental disorders
allow an interviewer to ask any questions that comes to mind in any order.
require an interviewer to ask standardized questions in specified sequence
most common form of clinical assessment after the interview. it assess cognition functioning and provides estimates of a persons intellectual ability.
instruments that measure different traits or aspects of our character
objective personality measures
involve administering a standard set of questions or statements to which a person responds using set options
help us understand someone's motives and test-taking attitudes
based on the assumption that people faced with an ambiguous stimulus such as an inkblot with project their own needs, personality and conflicts.
a projective test. consists of 10 inkblot cards that are symmetrical from right to left
thematic apperception test
projective test. it assesses motivations and interpersonal style. it consists of a series of pictures on cards, typically people in different situations but sometimes just objects, and the client has to say what the people are doing in the picture and what they will do in the future.
is to measure overt behaviors or responses shown by a person. they might observe the person in a certain situation.
involve a functional analysis of behavior which is understanding the antecedents (what precedes a behavior) and the consequences of the behavior.
a persons physiological or cognitive characteristics that may help the therapist understand a problem and determine treatment. for example: worrying about something or certain cognitions
a client is directly observed in their natural environment
more practical and less expensive form of observation and involves analoge tests. these tests replicate situations people face in real life and that may elicit a certain problem behavior
a person observes and records his own emotions, thoughts and behaviors.
medical tests for examining general central nervous system dysfunction, brina imaging techniques, CT scan, MRI,
biological assessment of dysfunctions in specific neurotransmitter systems
evaluating bodily changes possibly associated with certain mental conditions
indirect measures of brain physical function. noninvasive method of evaluating brain function via ones performance on standardized tests and tasks that indicate brain behavior relationships
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