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(EO) makes the reinforcing stimuli more potent ex.) deprive pigeon of food. deprive animal to 85% of their body weight so they desire food
(Sd) signals the reinforcing stimulus availability ex.) red key light. food available only when light is on
(B) ex.) key pecking
(Sr) increases behavior ex.) food
clinically significant, socially important, or educationally relavent behavior and its immediate antecedents and consequences (ABCs)
experimental analysis of a single case over time (controlling vs. describing or correllating behavior)
what you're trying to observe and understand dictates how you go about doing it
visual inspection of time-series graphs (effects that are large enough to be seen)
-developmental disabilities (habilitation, self injury, agression)
-clinical behavior therapy (feeding disorders, compliance, anxiety)
-educaton (direct instruction, classroom management, FBA) *functional behavior assessment
-community psychology (gun safety, conservation)
-organizational behavior management (staff management)
-gerentology (leisure activities, vocational rehabilitation)
-health psychology (exercise, substance use, smoking)
relate behavior to other observed or inferred student characteristics.
describe a complex picture of a child's strengths and weaknesses. useful for diagnosis, communicating symptoms to others, predicting other related problems. rely on correlational research to identify inferred causes (biophysical, developmental, cognitive explanations)-prior research w/ kids.
ex.) he has low intelligence
he's immature for his age
he has a learning disability
he has ADHD
*stuff that is inside the child
relate behavior to events surrounding its occurence. look at the antecedents (task difficulty, amount of assisstance given, person present) and consequences (error correction and feedback, punishment, positve and negative reinforcement)when manipulated, these events cause changes in the behavior (are functionally related to the behavior). describe a complex picture of behavior-enviornment relations. rely on experimental research to identify effective strategies for changing/ controlling behavior
1.) What is the function of the PB?
(what effect does it produce on the enviornment. what is the child gaining from the PB. determined by the caregiver)
2.) What events are functionally related to the problem behavior?
(what events in the environment, when manipulated, will change the PB. what can we change.)
Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
Process of selecting, applying, and evaluating the effects of behavioral procedures on important real-world problems.
systematic application of behavioral principles to change socially significant behavior to a meaningful degree. research tools enable users of these principles to verify a functional relationship btw a behavior and an intervention.
specialty of applied behavior analysis that concerns facillitating student learning
as a behavioral model, effective teaching emphasixzes knowledge od BEHAVIORAL PROCEDURES and PROGRESS MONITORING
-ABA only manipulates consequences
-behaviorism is only for animals
-behaviorism is a philosophy of life not shared by all
-ABA is dehumanizing
-ABA is ineffective
How does someone get diagnosed?
-doesn't tell us WHAT PB should be targeted for treatment (can only change behaviors that define the disorder, not the disorder itself)
-doesn't tell us HOW to change the PB (lack treatment validity)
-delay treatment and reduce its effectiveness (early intervention is crucial)
-organizes the behavior of adults who set contigencies (consistent & predictable)
-makes goals for behavior change explicit
-aids communication among treatment agents
-basis for selecting teaching material & strategies
-allows for progress monitoring
-reduces variability due to other influences
states that human behavior, both adaptive and maladaptive, is learned. learning occurs as a result of the consequences of behavior.
the explanation of human behavior that the book finds most useful
uses the reinforcement of successive approximations to a desired behavior to teach new behavior.
ex.) praise a young child effusively the first time she dresses herself, later she may only earn a compliment if her outfit is perfectly coordinated.
The behavior(s) to be changed; the behavior(s) to be increased or decreased in some measurable way, such as frequency, intensity or duration.
the first step in carrying out a program for behavior change is defining the target behavior
-identify the learner (use the student's name)
-identify the target behavior using action verbs (see Table 2-2) (state what the student will do)
-identify the conditions of the intervention(list antecedent stimuli. may also include type of assisstance available to student)
-identify the criteria for acceptable performance (teacher sets the standard for minimally acceptable performance. sets the standard for evaluation. used to measure the effectiveness of the intervention strategy)
statements providing the framework for planning an academic year or an entire unit of learning. they set the estimated parameters of anticipated academic and social development for which educators are responsible.
goals precede objectives
the basic level of student response competence. it implies the students ability to perform a newly learned response to some criterion of accuracy.
the basic criterion statement for initial learning
-describe behavior over time and across situations (so you can see how behavior changes in level, trend, and variability)
-relate behavior to surrounding events (A-B-C patterns)
-infer operant functions based on A-B-C patterns (what explains the pa
-design intervention to eliminate/reverse/weaken these operant functions
-measure behavior at baseline and during treatment to evaluate intervention outcomes
-observation and measurement make it possible to determine accuratly the effects of a particular instructional startegy or intervention. helps determine the success/failure of that strategy
-the data collected enables teachers to make decisions/alterations during the course of a program rather than waiting till its over to see if it worked
-collecting and reporting effect-based data is the ultimate tool of accountability
the number of times a student engages in a behavior w/in an observation period
ex.) Brett got out of his seat 6 times in 30 minutes
frequency expressed in a ration w/ time
ex.) Brett got out of his seat 0.2 times per minute.
a measurement of how long a student engages in a behavior
ex.) Brett was out of his seat for a total of 14 minutes
the length of time btw instructions to perform a behavior and the occurence of the behavior
ex.) After I told Brett to sit in his chair, it took him 50 seconds to sit down.
the shape of the behavior-what it looks like
ex.) Yao writes all the 4s backwards on her math paper
a behavior's intensity
ex.)Yao writes so heavily that she makes holes in the paper
describes where a behavior occurs, either in the enviornment, or , for example, on the child or victim's body
ex.) Bret walks to the window and looks outside
Yao writes the answers to her math problems in the wrong spaces
-anecdotal reports (helps to relate surrounding events)
-permanent product recording (can simplify recording)
-event recording (F,R,D,L) most commonly used
-interval recording and time sampling (partial interval most commonly used) time sampling only looks at the end of the interval
-DTT recordin(discrete trial training) are they retaining it & level of assisstance
-scatterplot (helps you predict PB by time of day)
-BC recording (behavior consequence)
Free operant Controlled Presentation
Event State Initiation Completion
Frequency/rate/PI Duration/ WI recording/
recording time sampling/ PI
the agreement formula
(number agrees/(number of agrees + disagrees)) x 100%
set a rule and follow through w/ it
Permanant Product Recording
records the outcome of a behavior, the teacher does not have to observe the student directly enagaged in the behavior, so it is often used for it's convienance.
records tangible items or enviornmantal effects that result from a behavior, for example, written academic work
an observational recording procedure . records the number of times a behavior occurs in a specified period. can only be used with discrete behaviors.
teacher tallys when the behavior occura
the teacher structures or controls the number of oppurtunities the student will have to perform the behavior
have a list of numbers from 1-20 in multiple columns for multiple trials. cirlce the trail number that corresponds with the correct response. slash through the trial number that corresponds with the incorrect reponse. total the number of correct trials. put a square around the corresponding number in the session column. connect the squares
the consistency of data collection reports among independent observers.
What factors may affect data collection?
sloppy operational defs
the more complex the system, the more the reliability is in jeopardy
1. notice that a problem exists
-assume behavior occurs because it is being reinforced
*social + (attention, tangible, edible, activity)
*social - (escape, avoidance)
*automatic +/- (stimulation, relief)
2. define the problem as a meaningful and observable behavior
3. choose a recording system
4. decide when/ how often to observe
5. record behavior the same way over time
6. plot the data across sessions
What are the purposes of graphs?
1.) the provide a means for organizing data during the data collection process
2.) an ongoing picture makes possible formative evaluation, the ingoing analysis of the effectiveness of intervention
3.) graphs serve as a vehicle for communication among teachers, students, and related service professionals
are phases of an intervention during which different approaches or techniques are used
ex.) baseline and intervention
-behavior shows relatively little variation over time
-consistent range, not trend, no cycles
-characterized behavior under a given set of conditions
-enables comparison to different conditions
-indicates stability of situational influences
-immediate changes in level compared to baseline as the "gold standard" (80% or higher PND)
-evaluated against baseline variability, level, trend, recency
-delayed changes or changes in trend and variability less convincing
-measurement error (definitions, observers, recording, scoring)
-uncontrolled situational influences
-intervention or treatment
-goal is to minimize the first two so intervention can be seen
1.) independent verification "I saw elvis at the state fair"
2.) generalization across behaviors
What is the Gold Standard?
1.) to see if treatment can change over time
2.)under conditions that rule out competing explanations of what we saw
3.)so we can have confidence that treatment will work with other children in different situations (replication)
measures of the level of behavior as it occurs naturally, before intervention. baselines should be stable.
-subject exposed to a no-treatment condition (baseline)
-replace baseline w/ a treatment condition(hold everything constant)
-alternate baseline and treatment conditions repeatedly (lather-rinse-repeat)
-compare behavior under the different conditions
-any differences btw conditions might be due to chance (other variables may have caused the changes)
-treatment and not some other variable caused the changes if they can be seen and occur repeatedly when treatment is manipulated
Whats the difference between assessment and analysis?
-behavior is changed repeated times at the discretion of the experimenter
-some variables are held constant- cannot cause the change (subject, classroom, teacher, type of math problems, obs system)
-some variables are free to vary- could have caused the change (social interactions at home, sleep)
-but chances of these causing the change in behavior decrease with each successful replication
the basic single subject design. A=baseline and B=intervention. teacher can evalutate changes between the two phases and make inferences about the effectiveness of the intervention.
quasi experimental design
-offers simplicity and experimental control
-the nessecity for withdrawing an effective intervention in order to determine whether a finctional relation exists
What are the advantages and disadvantages of chnaging criterion design?
-it can establish a functional relation while continually changing the behavior in a positive direction.
-neccessitates very gradual behavioral change it may therefore be innappropriate for behavior that requires rapid modification
What are the advantages and disadvantages of the multiple baseline design?
-can establish functional relation without withdrawing the intervention and without gradual alteration
-has to be applied to several setting, people, or behaviors which may not always be practical
-requires collecting baseline data for a long period of time (probe design is a possible solution)
-a great way for teachers to know which method is most likely to be successful with a student
-the necessity to institue a replication phase in order to establish a clear functional relation
-answers the question, what method is most likely to be successful with a student
-the neccessity to institute a replication phase in order to establish a clear functional relation
-when a teacher is trying to judge the effectiveness between treatments
-is trying to put together an institutional package that will facillitate a student's performance
-is trying to systematically remove assisstance to bring a student to a more independent performance
-allows the teacher to compare the effects of a number of interventions on student behavior
-allows the teacher to monitor the effects of various procedures on student behavior
-may be a cumulative effect
a behavior can serve the function of getting away from a situation one finds unpleasant or aversive. negative reinforcement
1.) teacher idnetifes PB
-develop operational definitions
-collect initial confirming data
-notify IEP members
3.) Conduct functional assessment
4.) Conduct functional analysis
5.) Develop behavior support plan
gather info from ppl who regularly interact w/ the student. this is informant assessment
ex.) behavioral interview, behavioral scales, questionairres
gather info by taking data on the behavior while the student is engaged in it. this is descriptive assessment
ex.) anecdotal reports, A-B-C descriptive analysis, scatter plot analysis
allows comparison of conditions in which variables thought to occasion or maintain the behavior was presented
used in conjugation w/ a multi-element design to confirm a functional relationship btw the target behavior and a controlling variable
ex.) ABAB design
a set of info-gathering strategies and instruments
using descriptive procedures/ to generate hypothesis
refer to the setting, climate, or context within which the behavior and the contingency occur
may occur immediately before a PB (proximal antecedents)
or hours or days in advance (distal antecedents)
universal: focuses on all students w/in the environment e.g school
targeted: focuses on all students with whom the procedures of the first tier were not adequate to address their behavior needs
intensive: focuses on students for whom both above tiers weren't successful, and for students whose data reflects chronic behavioral problems
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