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n the 1500s England broke away from the Roman Catholic Church and created a new church called the Church of England. Everyone in England had to belong to the church. This phenomenon is known as established churches or state churches.
Person who travels to a new place for religious reasons
was an English leader of the Separatist settlers of the Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts; primary architect of the Mayflower Compact
Massachusetts Bay Co.
Englishman and Quaker who founded the colony of Pennsylvania (1644-1718)
Salem Witch Trials
The First Great Awakening affected British North America in the 1730s and 40s. True to the values of the Enlightenment, the human decision in matters of religion and morality. It respected each individual's feelings and emotions. In stark contrast to Puritanism, which emphasized outward actions as proof of salvation, the Great Awakening focused on inward changes in the Christian's heart. a revival movement meant to purify religion from material distractions and renew one's personal faith in God. The movement was a reaction against the waning of religion and the spread of skepticism during the Enlightenment of the 1700s.
- the First Amendment guarantee that the government will not create and support an official state church
Alexis de Tocqueville
- French, wrote about democracy in America, said religion was very important to Americans
What were the 5 salient impacts that religion had the history of America?
1. America developed as a land of religious refuge. A place where you could be free to practice what you believed.
2. Religious tolerance in America was never perfect and is still developing today.
3. America became a great melting pot of religious ideas in the early part of our nation.
4. Religiosity in America contributed greatly to independence, the Revolution, and the development of the Constitution.
5. Religion contributed to the development of salient cultural and social attributes that are still important to our national identity.
What have been the lasting contributions of religion in America?
The regular practice of religion helps poor persons move out of poverty. Regular church attendance, for example, is particularly instrumental in helping young people to escape the poverty of inner-city life.Religious belief and practice contribute substantially to the formation of personal moral criteria and sound moral judgment.
What has been the impact of the protestant work ethic?
Weber argued that Protestants, beginning with Martin Luther, had conceptualized work as a duty which benefits the individual and the society. The notion of the Protestant work ethic is still important today.
Scottish political economist and philosopher. His Wealth of Nations (1776) laid the foundations of classical free-market economic theory, government should not interfere with economics. Advocates Laissez Faire and founder of "invisible hand"
1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
St. Thomas Aquinas:
He was the chief theological mind of Western Medieval theology and philosophy. Taught that there are things you can know by reason, things you can know by faith, and together these two things lead us to ALL TRUTH. All things have God as a source
Jean Jacques Rousseau:
A French man who believed that Human beings are naturally good & free & can rely on their instincts. Government should exist to protect common good, and be a democracy
A product that must be purchased in order to be consumed, and whose consumption by one individual prevents another individual from consuming it.
is a theory in normative ethics holding that the best moral action is the one that maximizes utility. Utility is defined in various ways, but is usually related to the well-being of sentient entities.
an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.
an implicit agreement among the members of a society to cooperate for social benefits, for example by sacrificing some individual freedom for state protection
sole; single; unshared. Liberal Representative Democracy--Women, foreign born individuals, and slaves were denied any political power.
excluded smaller corporations from providing the same product.The absence of government regulation during this period caused a sizable economic problem.
Which types of goods does government provide or regulate?
How does one determine the 4 main political ideologies in America?
Compare and contrast Hobbes and Locke on the state of nature.
Hobbes:People would be mean and selfish in a state of nature, People would do anything to better their position in life, People should not be trusted to make decisions on their own,In a state of nature men are in constant state of war, Government created to protect the people from their own selfishness and evil, Believed in absolute monarchy where the government
Locke:Natural rights- life, liberty, property,Religious freedom, Diplomacy solves conflicts, Power of the government comes from the people, People give up certain freedoms so government can protect their rights,People give up certain freedoms so government can protect their rights, People have a right to rebel if government does not protect their rights,His ideas influenced the writers of the US Constitution, Believed that rebellion could not exist
Both: Government is necessary, Government is created to keep order, Government exists through a contract between the leader and the people
Influence over a government's leadership, organization and policies
a political ideology that emphasizes freedom, democracy, and the power of the individual.
the people are the ultimate source of power.
created the idea of three branches of government during the enlightenment.
The state of being free within a society. A particular right or freedom
The issues that attract the serious attention of policy makers (the people in charge)
A legislator who acts not only on their conscious but on the broad interests of society.
Political ideologist that supports the pluralist theory of government.
A person appointed or elected to represent others.
An english statesman famous for his oratory. (1729-1797) Member of British Parliament and author of Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790), which criticized the underlying principles of the French Revolution and argued conservative thought.
A model of democracy that stresses building virtuous citizens.
A state in which people of all races and ethnicity are distinct but have equal social standing. A theory of government that holds that open, multiple, and competing groups can check the asserted power by any one group.
Power is held by a small number of well-positioned, highly influential individuals
: issues relating to a country's internal matter
A nation's relationship with other countries.
4 Power Maps:
1. Assembly: a group in ancient Greece with the power to pass laws.
2. Precinct: The smallest unit when electing officials, a voting district.
3. Council of 500: a group in Athens who were elected yearly to propose laws.
4. Committee of 50: helped to organize and enforce public decisions(decisions made by the council of 500)
Pleasure vs. Pain Principle-
a small group of people having control of a country, organization, or institution.
A system of government in which power is vested in the people, who rule either directly or through freely elected representatives
formulated the principle of utility, which approves of an action in so far as an action has an overall tendency to promote the greatest amount of happiness. Happiness is identified with pleasure and the absence of pain.
What were the examples that Hardin used in his article Tragedy of the Commons?
Refers to global resources and non-renewable resources.
What is Aristotle’s justification for slavery?
Aristotle believed that the majority o f human beings may be enslaved without injustice, because they are slaves by nature .
How does Aristotle say we become good citizens?
a good citizen to the extent to which one upholds and honors the constitution
What does Aristotle say is the purpose of politics?
What are the two main components of Aristotle’s definition of justice?
Compare and contrast Mill and Bentham on utilitarianism.
Bentham's moral theory was founded on the assumption that it is the consequences of human actions that count in evaluating their merit and that the kind of consequence that matters for human happiness is just the achievement of pleasure and avoidance of pain.
Mill fully accepted Bentham's devotion to greatest happiness principle as the basic statement of utilitarian value. But he did not agree that all differences among pleasures can be quantified. On Mill's view, some kinds of pleasure experienced by human beings also differ from each other in qualitative ways, and only those who have experienced pleasure of both sorts are competent judges of their relative quality. This establishes the moral worth of promoting higher (largely intellectual) pleasures among sentient beings even when their momentary intensity may be less than that of alternative lower (largely bodily) pleasures.
What is politics according to Aristotle?
It's about learning how to live a good life.
Why does Hardin argue for the need of government?
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