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Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology (9th Edition)
Earth was formed
4.56 billion years ago
3 Layers defined by composition
crust (continental crust and oceanic crust)
Mantle (Asthenosphere, Mesosphere, and Lithosphere)
Core (inner and outer)
The inner part of the Earth is powered by
The outer part of the earth is powered by
external heat from the sun
Solar Nebula Hypothesis
rotating cloud , flat disk shaped with the protosun as the center,
According to the Solar Nebula Hypothesis, the inner and outer planets were formed by
The inner plants were formed by metallic and rocky substances
the other planets were formed by ice
The core of Earth is made up of _________. The Inner Core is _______. The other Core is __________.
Crust is composed of
Lithosphere's physical properties
brittle, stiff, cool, rigid
Asthenosphere physical properties
weak plastic, partly melted
Mesosphere physical properties
Continental Margins (continental shelf, continental slope)
water covered parts of continents
ocean basin floor,
sites if thick accumulations of sediment
Zones where new ocean crust is formed
why are Ocean Basins raised?
Because newly formed lithosphere is hotter and therefore less dense than the surrounding rocks and occupies more space
Igneous rocks are the product of
cooling an solidification of magma
Sedimentary Rocks are the products of
are made out of weathering of other rocks
Metamorphic rocks are the product of
changed igneous, sedimentary and other metamorphic rocks
what is the difference between magma and lava
Lava is the erupted and ejected magma from a volcano
How many major plate tectonics are there in the lithosphere?
Divergent plate boundaries
two plates that move apart
When Divergent plate boundaries move away from each other , what is formed? how often, and why?
new crust is form constantly because a new void must be filled by hot rock
Ocean Basins are located along the _________ of _______ and __________.
Ocean Basins are located along the crests of Oceanic ridges and rift valleys
seafloor spreading is located along ____ that are _______ due to ______ ______.
seafloor spreading is located along
splits landmasses into two or more smaller segments along a continental drift
Convergent plate boundaries
2 plates move together
In convergent plate boundaries
plate margins are being consumed
When oceanic slab sinks in a oceanic continental convergence.... what is formed?
a volcanic mountain
When oceanic slab converge .... what is formed?
volcanoes on ocean floor
Continental-continental convergence is what, and forms what?
two continents collide and form mountains
Transform fault boundaries
slide past one another neither destroying or forming
Rift valleys are the signification of a ______ _______.
an area of volcanism , high heat flow and crustal uplifting
Hot is on top, cool is on bottom
a slab sinks to the asthenosphere, and pulls the traveling plate along
Principles of original horizontality
sediments are generally deposited in a horizontal position
Principles of cross cutting relationships
younger features cut across older features
Inclusion of a rock
when a piece of rock that is enclosed within another rock
In an inclusion , which rock is the oldest?
the rock that is incuding
the rock that contains the inclusion is youngest
tilted rocks overlained by flat lying rocks
Strata on either side are parallel
metamorphic or igneous rock in contact with sedimentary strata
Correlation in rocks
mathcing rocks in similar ages in different regions
An element's identifying number, also the number of protons in an element
sum of protons and neutrons
varient of the same parent atom
Minerals and rocks are related in what way?
Minerals are the building blocks of rock
Minerals are ____________ compounds.
Rock is composed of different _______.
electrical charge that folds ions together in chemical compounds
giving or gaining an electron or two
share electrons to achieve electrical neutrality
Minerals consist of an _______ array of ______ to form a particular _____ _______.
Minerals consist of an
to form a particular
minerals with the same composition but different structures
Physical properties of Minerals
color (not dependent) , streak, hardness, cleavage, fracture
Streak of a rock
color that shows when scratched against a surface
on the Mohz harness scale, resistance of scratching glass
ability to break
Igneous rocks form as _______________
molten rocks (magma, lava) cools and solidifies
Rocks formed from lava are _____ rocks.
Rocks formed from magma at depth are _____ rocks.
Another word for intrusive rocks are
Magma consists of three components:
Volatiles (dissolved gases in the melt) : water vapor, carbon dioxide, and sulfur
Cystallization of magma
Cooling of magma allows the systematic arrangement of ions into orderly patterns
Rate of Cooling
Slower rate = few larger crystals
Faster rate = many smaller crystals
Very fast rate = glass
Factors affecting crystal size
% of silica
rate of cooling
fine grained texture; tiny crystals, may contain vesicles
coarse grained; slow cooling; large visible crystals
Minerals form at different temperatures; larger crystals are embedded into a matrix of smaller crystals
very rapid cooling of lava
Resulting rock of glassy texture is
fragmental appearance produced by violent volcanic eruptions
exceptionally coarse grained
Igneous rocks are composed mostly of what minerals?
Granite magma has ______ silica.
high silica; vicious ; intrusive
Basaltic magmas have __ silica
low silica and are more fluid-like
Rhyolite is _____ equivalent to _____.
glassty texture; frothy appearance; produced during volcanic eruption
Basalt rock has an __________ texture and is and _________ rock found on the _______ and on many ___ islands.
Basalt rock has an
texture and is and
rock found on the
Gabbro is a ____ silica rock and equivalent to _______, with a ___ texture.
Gabbro is a
silica rock and equivalent to
Rare composition of magnesium and iron
Andesite is ______ origin. and has _____ texture.
volcanic origin with aphanitic texture
diorite is the _____ equivalent to ________.
Pyroclastic rocks are composed of _____...
fragments from a volcanic eruption
ash sized volcanic fragments
particles larger than ash
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