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a series of statements typically used to persuade someone of something or to present reasons for accepting a conclusion
an argument is valid if the truth of the premises logically guarantees the truth of the conclusion.
The premises and the conclusion of a valid argument can all be false. A valid argument with _____ premises can still have a _____ conclusion.
The premises are intended to provide such strong support for the conclusion that, if the premises are true, then it would be impossible for the conclusion to be false.
an argument that is intended by the arguer merely to establish or increase the probability of its conclusion. In an inductive argument, the premises are intended only to be so strong that, if they were true, then it would be unlikely that the conclusion is false.
The _____________________ searches for general, commonly held truths that shape beliefs, and scrutinizes them to determine their consistency with other beliefs. The basic form is a series of questions formulated as tests of logic and fact intended to help a person or group discover their beliefs about some topic
reductio ad absurdum:
- a common form of argument which seeks to demonstrate that a statement is true by showing that a false, untenable, or absurd result follows from its denial, or in turn to demonstrate that a statement is false by showing that a false, untenable, or absurd result follows from its acceptance ex. The Earth cannot be flat, otherwise we would find people falling off the edge.
found its most successful application in natural science: according to the atomistic view, the material universe is composed of minute particles, which are considered to be relatively simple and immutable and too small to be visible
- asserts that non-material abstract (but substantial) forms (or ideas), and not the material world of change known to us through sensation, possess the highest and most fundamental kind of reality
an entity used in a certain type of metaphysical explanation of what it is for things to share a feature, attribute, or quality or to fall under the same type or natural kind
Universals seem to identify a type of whole; generalization of something in relation to the whole of things such as all humans; particulars are individual substances such as red bricks or blue shoes. They share characteristics.
a formal written defense of one's opinions or conduct.
Socrates considered wisest because he admits he knows nothing and goes and speaks with people who do know and learns from them.
He avoided hubris and arrogance. He was aware he did not know things, never claimed to know things he does not know. It is better to know that one knows nothing
Excessive pride and arrogance; saying things that cause shame
What is he trying to protect them from? He is trying to protect them and all Athens from hubris and from being unwise. Seeks to help them be just and honest in their positions of authority and citizenship.
Because Socrates states that it is through lack of loyalty to the ideals of a culture and great city such as Athens, which has brought up, nurtured, educated and given one a share to every good that the city had to give, that any Athenian would make up his mind that he does not like the ways of the city and go to another colony or city.
He who does this disobeys the rights granted him;
- Because any attempt to define virtue by using an action performed virtuously would be a circular argument. This would presuppose what is supposed to be defined.
- Because virtue is a quality of the soul, it is beneficial and is a kind of wisdom; there are no teachers of virtue;
It is presumptuous and virtue is defined by Socrates as a type of knowledge which is innate in man, not a mere action of choosing but rather must be desired by the soul and truly understood as goodness and be righteous.
a logical fallacy in which the reasoner begins with what they are trying to end with; in this discussion, a conclusion is made based on material already assumed in the argument. This is bad because it stands on no true premise. Ex whatever is less dense than water will float, because whatever is less dense than water will float.
Socrates states that, “a man cannot search either for what he knows or for what he does not know”
Claims for these reasons one must live life as piously as possible. The evidence for the immortality of the soul is that the soul is the mind; mind is eternal. Socrates proposes there is nothing the soul has not learned- it has seen all things in the underworld and on Earth.
This is Epistemology; according to Plato, all genuine knowledge is innate (we are born with all of the ideas/forms already in our minds/souls.
Learning is merely a recollection of things we have learned before. (or perhaps our ancestors have)
Only from ignorance can one then be led towards knowledge.
Knowledge is that which concerns the forms (ideas) and is changeless-the real.
Opinion (doxa) is changeable and is not grounded on the nature of the forms, doxa is useful and provides the guide for how we get around in the world (opinions may or may not be false)
Rightness (correct, true) is that which complements true opinions and holds up the pillars of knowledge.
Fear is lack of understanding, it is an error in any person’s philosophy (distorts the mind) Peace of mind is tranquility, gained when one seeks the causes and circumstances of celestial events.
To achieve happiness, one must not assume to know everything (open mindedness)
One must always seek knowledge, wisdom, new experiences and be humble. Epicurus argues against determinism; claims freewill exists. In order to be happy one must believe that God is an immortal, blessed, perfect, loving, omnipotent free-will personality which bestows such divine attributes among mortal men.
Epicurus argued that man should rid himself of the irrational fear of death. Death involves neither pleasure nor pain, therefore it is nothing to us. Only thing that is bad for us is pain, thus death is not bad for us.
Because they were able to endure pain or hardship without showing their feelings or complaining.
They had a notion of morality which was stern: life in accordance with nature and controlled by virtue.
They taught indifference to everything external for nothing external could be neither good nor evil. Incapable of joy. Accept what you cannot change and live in harmony with the active principle that orders existence and holds all things together.
What is “up to us?”
1) of God himself, the individual being whose quality is derived from the whole of substance, he is indestructible and who at stated periods of time absorbs into himself the whole of substance and again creates it from himself 2) the cosmos is the orderly arrangement of the heavenly bodies 3) third is the whole to which these two parts are. All things are fated to happen- nature is rationally ordered.
The great conflagration/eternal recurrence- if it is living, it is warm and moving, if it is dead, it is cold and moves not. Fate is a continuous string of causes of things which exist: causal determinism. Causes bring events into being. God is Material, he is a great fire which is also the source of our souls which are part of this fire; God is also reason and fate.
The world is ordered by reason and providence. The world has different parts: soul, intelligence, forces. The world is then, a living being endowed with soul and reason and having aether as its ruling principle. Also claim that just as we have God, who is fire, give our souls life and power, so the sun is the ruling power of the world, which also has a soul.
The idea that every event is necessitated by antecedent events and conditions together with the laws of nature. Fate and causation. Laws of nature are causal, cannot violate the physical laws.
The idea that things can be explained in terms of their purposes or goals. Telos- refers to the end of the process. Focuses on the purpose substances serve rather than their causes.
refers to a deduction that produces knowledge.
from particular to universal;Deduction- from universal to particular;
Something which is potential must undergo becoming (actualizing) hence changing through motion or contact with another thing which makes it so. Actualization of potentials.
Mentioned as the definition of nature; any discussion of nature will need to rely upon the explanation of motion. Locomotion is prioritized in his physics: all changes depend on this locomotion - active potentialities of two entities must come into contact in order for interaction to occur.
Everything changes and is in motion. His physics is a study of change.
Luck and chance are both things that occur "for something" or with some sort of an end, but that do so coincidentally. Luck occurs specifically among things in accord with decision (or things with thought). (Luck is chance that occurs to people.)
Chance is broader than luck; it can involve animals, children, or inanimate objects.
In essence this is God. The source and center of all things material, spiritual and intellectual. This unmoved mover hold things up as he is the center of gravity; initiates motion from outside of nature. This is the first source and center; This unmoved mover is needed to set things in motion.
Impossible to doubt; unquestionable. An indubitable truth will serve as an intuitively grasped truth/fact within the mind. Brings one to a conclusion of what is really true.
The experiment shows that he sense-experiences the wax; it is sense-perceived; it then melts which means the sense-experience of it changes. The mind shows that the wax is the same thing: identity is the same, substance is the same however the form changed due to the ambient conditions. The mind perceives this on its own, giving perfect knowledge of it; the senses give unreliable, deceptive information about the wax in melted form: imperfect knowledge. A priori because it is wax whether melted or not and no evidence is needed. Mind knows it is wax.
Because he is perfect; perfection cannot have flaws. The idea of God and his existence in our heads cannot be doubted once it has been pondered even slightly.
When considering God as "a substance that is infinite, eternal, immutable, independent, supremely intelligent, supremely powerful, and which created both myself and everything else," the Meditator realizes that the idea of God must have far more objective reality than he has formal reality: God is an infinite substance whereas he is only a finite substance. Since the idea of God cannot have originated in himself, he concludes that God must be the cause of this idea and must therefore necessarily exist.
Because an a posteriori statement implies that senses are reliable; are based on data vie sense-experience. God’s existence is a priori because we don’t need empirical evidence to know it is true. God is not a deceiver.
Because the meditator places emphasis on God and our relationship to him through our minds. The idea of God cannot be observed, it is inherent in all human mind circuits. This has no beginning nor an end, even with doubt and non-belief, the idea is still there.
Doubts and desires come from an understanding that we lack something, and we would not be aware of that lack unless we were aware of a more perfect being that has those things which we lack. The idea of God has infinite objective reality, and is therefore more likely to be true than any other idea.
The idea of God may have come from a priest or one’s parents which are finite, imperfect sources of this idea in one’s mind as a child or otherwise however, the suggestion is that at the end of the causal chain, there is a first cause, which is God.
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