What did Edward Jenner contribute to microbiology?
-Developed the 1st vaccine for small pox using the pustules from cattle as inoculum (observed cause and effect before microbes and disease had been linked)
What did Louis Pasteur contribute to microbio?
-Coined aerobic and anaerobic to describe alcohol production in yeast -Found a method to pasteurize milk and wine (boiled broth in swan neck flask exposed to air) -Ended debate on spontaneous gen -Used attenuated strain to vaccinate chicken cholera
What was Robert Koch's contribution to microbiology?
-Validated germ theory by publishing a paper on anthrax that shows direct correlation between it & disease -Made pure cultures possible (gelatin, agar) -Discovered the cause of TB and cholera
What are Koch's postulates?
1. Microbe found in diseased, but NOT in healthy 2. Microbe isolated from diseased & grown in pure culture 3. Microbe introduced into healthy, causes disease 4. Same strain of microbe found in newly diseased
What did Fredrick Griffith contribute to microbiology?
-Discovered transformation in bacteria 1 Injected live strain S into mice - killed 2 Injected live strain R into mice - lived 3 Injected dead strain S into mice - lived 4 Injected dead strain S & live strain R - died
What did the experiment by Oswold Avery, Macleod & Macarthy demonstrate?
-Showed the microbes used in Griffith's experiment were heat sensitive @ 80 degrees, protease resistant, RNAse resistant, but NOT DNAse resistant (i.e. showed that DNA was the mode of genetic transformation)