The study of international politics, a subfield of pol sci. World politics amoung states and countries.
3 core basic principles:
dominance-realism, reciprocity-liberalism, and identity- constructivism
explanations that can be generally applied across cases, logical with good empirical evidence.
Goal of IR theory
logic and debate
doesn't really exist. explain cross trade, can be specific, but generalize, specify about cases clearly
X is the ______variable which does the ____.
Y is the _____ variable which is the _____
Shifts balance of power are the ____
keep adding to the independent variable
No barrier between trade and other countries. Way international economics organized. All states except this.
Lack of any political authority over a sovereign state
3 levels of analysis
1st image- individual 2nd image- state = domestic 3rd image- systemic or structural level
concerns the perceptions, choices, and actions of individual human beings
Individual- 1st image
concerns the aggressions of individuals within states that influence state actions in the international arena, such as interests groups, political organizations, and government agencies.
domestic- 2nd image
influence of the international system upon outcomes. Focuses on the interactions of states themselves w/o regard to their internal make-up. Pays attention to states relative power positions in the international system among them
systemic- 3rd image
Who said there was a 4th level added that is incorrect?
least amount of variance in the explanation of the outcome. Reduced to basically: the smaller the number of independent variables that cover the most outcomes, the stronger the theoretical explanation.
to falsify a theory, all theories can be falsified because they are social in nature...now laws in a social world
to add the independent or add more independent variables---hurts the strength of the explanation, hurts parsimony. Trying to explain every case by adding to the independent variable is Degeneration
not chaos, but the absence of any known authority over the concept of the sovereign state. Implies there is no possibility of world gov't.
Ultimately execute decisions for states, but how much choice to have, how much do they matter as agents of change
"man, state, war"= who said this?
List the images:
1st image: individual 2nd image: state 3rd image: systemic
cause is found in individuals or small groups based on their characteristics. They cause. ex: Hitler, Bush (Great man theory of IR)
1st image- Individual
whatever goes into the state or is attributed to the domestic/state level: domestic politics, regime change, crisis or change within the state, nationalism-anything that is central to the state-not an individual or something beyond the state
2nd image- (Domestic)state
structures or systems, wide causes, power, interdependence. Structures are casually/ analytically prior to the unit level of variables.
3rd image- systemic or structural
who are primary actors?
In an effort to appease German ambitions, Britain and france agreed in this agreement to let Germany occupy parts of Czechoslavakia. This appeasment only seemed to encourage Hitlers conquest.
Munich Agreement of 1938
Who argued that international politics is governed by objective, universal laws based on national interests defined in terms of power. Reasoned, No nation had "God on its Side." and all nations had to base their actions on prudence and practicality.
the ability to get another actor to do what it would not otherwise have done . No influence itself, however, but the ability or potential to influence others.
The ratio of the power that 2 states can bring bear against each other.
A situation in which actions taken by states to ensure their own security threaten the security of other states
set of practices that define a scientific discipline at any particular period.
Realism is a paradigm in which two ways:
1. as a collection of strong theories that share basic assumptions and a independent variable 2. As the most accepted and critiqued theoretical tradition in IR -top dog of IR
For all realist and classical realists, what matters a lot?
material, military, economic, are primary measures for who?
this is not a theory, but an approach or worldview.
what is the biggest problem in IR?
List some historical roots for realism:
1. Thucydides 2. Sun Tzu 3. Machiavelli 4. Hobbes 5. Bismark 6. E.H Carr-20 years Crisis 7. Hans Morgenthau-Politics Amound Nations
List the core assumptions of early realist for Classical Realism:
1. states, rational actors 2. states seek to have more power 3. balance of power is key determinant of international politics
for _____ realists, power is an end. It is rooted in the balance of power (systemic) but also in a human/ philosophical idea that men lust for power.
who wrote "theory of international politics" in 1979?
Kenneth Waltz (neorealism)
These are the basic core assumptions of? 1.states are still rational unitary actors, under condition of anarchy 2.states dot seek power, seek uncertainty 3. the system is ordered by the distribution of material capabilities (balance of power) Relartive power and 0 sum
These are the basic core assumptions of? 1. rationality 2.state interest 3. "self help"-realists rely on it SEEK POWER
-structural realism-systems theory -rationality and anarchy -unit level is reductionist, all explanation is at the structural or systemic level of analysis -state preferences are fixed -states seek security, not power -structure is the key variable
poles of power determine the configuration of any international system
what important distinction between classical realism and neorealism?
prudence vs. automatic nature of realism
Where does realism come from?
practical reaction of idealism, which was not a theory but an approach or world view
is pragmatic, sober, and prudent explanation of war and peace, negotiation, and treat, tariff, alliances, and double crossings. There is a strong idea of prudence and morality. All ends up being about power!!
power of a state relative to another is the locus of balance of power
security dilemma is based on the idea of what?
what is the logic of security dilemma?
any increase in security/power of a state A may create fear in state B, that state B will increase its relative power, making A less secure.
realist rely on what?
these are the 3 main problems of what? 1. tend to be snapshots or static theory 2. long term is not well considered, doesnt explain change well 3. realism explains conflict, but not cooperation
Who poses a neorealism as a microeconomic theory- theory of firms
who says, "Balance of threat is realist, but threat is material measure that determines balance or bandwagon. "Man, state, war"
what is the goal of IR theory?
1. logic and debate 2. solve or predict problems to improve the world 3. Generalizability, generalize explanations
what should a theory do?
1. causal explanations 2. use empirical evidence 3. work from a solid and coherent core logic: theories must make sense and have a strong core of case evidence to support it
organizations whose members are national governements . For example military alliances like NATO, UN, NAFTA
Intergovernmental organizations (IGOs)
private organizations, some considerable size and resource .NRA, KKK< Boy Scouts
a perspective on IR based on a set of similar actors or process that suggests possible explanations to "why" questions.
levels of analysis
a state with overwhelming or preponderant power will lend stability to the system.
A rising challenger will attack if it gains sufficient power to supplant the hegemon, favors bipolarity
Hegemonic stability theory
-Dale Copeland -Bipolarity is less stable -perceived deep and inevitable decline -potential power perceived over time is very important -the declining power will preemptively attack the rising challenger -is neorealist, but not in favor of bipolarity
Dynamid Differentials Theory
typically supplied and advised opposing factions in civil wars
what ends 30 years war?
peace of westphalia
lack of any political authority over a sovereign state
Who said, "State of nature is a state of war" We are existing in a world of conflict. States have to gain power, to make sure they can keep what they got.
Who was first to call it realism?
Who had the first realist text?
US financial aid to rebuild European economies
The Marshall Plan
adopted in the late 1940's, the U.S sought to halt the expansion of Soviet Union influence globally on several levels at once-military, political, ideological, economic
C-C= DC= CD= DD=
CC=3,3=4 no jail DC=4,1=3 30 days CD=1,4=2 5 years DD=2,2=1 10 years
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