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Test File to Accompany Life the Science of Biology, Eighth edition
What principle enables receptor-mediated endocytosis to work?
protein to protein recognition (based on protein tertiary structure.
Which is one of the tenets of the "cell theory" (as it was originally stated)?
all organisms are composed of one or more cells.
Compartmentalization in cells is necessary for (list 4 things).
Efficient cellular metabolism
sub-division of labor
Which of the following is accomplished by phagocytosis?
the nutritive strategy for singled celled organisms.
movement of ions through ion channels.
Unsaturated fatty acids tend to ____________ at the sites of their double bonds
kink or bend
What is an
a linkage between carbon one of an
α-glucose molecule and carbon four of the adjacent
How does cholesterol enter into a cell?
cholesterol (as LDL) is transported into cells using a receptor-mediated process.
In what way can a change in pH (away from optimal) affect protein structure?
hydrogen and/or ionic bonds between amino acids can be disrupted
which of the following represents flow along a concentration gradient?
Which property most accurately characterizes a lipid?
are soluble in non-polar solvents.
Tertiary protein structure is determined by all the following bond types except
Some microbiologists refer to humans as being a human-microbe hybrid. why?
microbes living in humans conduct metabolic processes that benefit humans.
What does "dynamic instability" refer to?
the assembly and dis-assembly of microtubules or microfilaments
What sort of structure is represente by
β-pleated sheets or random coils?
the secondary structure of proteins
Which is one way that cells adapt to (what humans refer to as) "extreme" environments?
maintenance of optimal membrane fluidity
Covalent bonds are characterized by
fixed bond angles
Most biomass on plant Earth is composed of
Starch and glycogen differ in what way?
glycogen is more highly branched than starch
Which is the main lipid in the plasma (or biological) membrane?
The cytoskeleton consists of which of the following?
microtubules, microfilaments and intermediate filaments
Which monomer unit is a component of glycogen?
what do the motor proteins kinesin and dynein do?
they move organelles around a cell
what are "trans" fatty acids?
un-natural fatty acids, resulting from food processing, that are bad for your health.
a kink in a fatty acid resulting from a double bond helps contribute to ?
fluidity in a membrane
why is carbon especially suited for the construction of biomolecules?
it can form four stable covalent bonds.
water has a "high heat capacity." why is this important to biological organisms?
it buffers organisms against changes in temperature.
what structure makes up the mitotic spindle during cell division?
what are elements of the cytoskeleton composed of?
what makes cellulose so chemically different from starch?
cellulose is not branched. cellulose is made of beta glucose. parallel cellulose strands are held together by hydrogen bonds. beta bonds are rigid and cannot rotate wheras alpha bonds can rotate.
What (precisely) is pH?
a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions.
Which of the following most contributes to the death of a microbial cell at low temperatures?
alteration to the tertiary structure of membrane proteins (i.e. they cease to function).
What sort of bond occurs between two amino acids?
Which of the following elements has the highest electronegativity?
Oxygen------- out of hydrogen, carbon, phosphorus, nitrogen.
Which organism or type of organism first produced oxygen on Earth?
What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids?
unsaturated fats have double bonds; saturated fats don't.
Which is NOT a phase of mitosis?
What is the difference between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria?
gram-positive bacteria have a cell wall with large amounts of peptidoglycan; gram-negative bacteria have relatively little peptidoglycan.
The synthesis of macromolecules all have what in common?
each involves the loss of a molecule of water.
During osmosis, ____________ moves across the cell membrane.
Which is likely to be a survival strategy for a microbe that is adapted to low temperatures?
it will have a higher proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in its membrane.
What occurs during the G-1 phase of the cell cycle?
growth of cell contents and organelles
Nucleotides are composed of
a sugar, a phosphate group and a base
What process is necessary to move substances across a cell membrane against a concentration gradient?
In a strand of DNA, the sugar-phosphate backbone is held together by __ bonds while the two strands of the double helix are held together by __ bonds
A phospholipid has how many fatty acids?
In which of the following molecules are hydrogen bonds important to overall structure?
celulose (carbohydrate), silk (protein), DNA, tertiary structure of protein
What function does cholesterol perform in a membrane?
it adds structural integrity to the membrane
Which is NOT a role for protein?
Why is it difficult to apply any "species" concept to prokaryotic organisms?
they do not reproduce sexually. horizontal transfer can confuse genetic analysis
In the "Fluid Mosaic" model of the phospholipid bilayer, the "fluid" is ____ and the "mosaic" is _____.
phospholipid, integral protein.
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