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· Equal opportunity vs. Individualism
· Constant battle between wanting a free market and constantly being burnt by its ways.
· Social theory advocating the liberty, rights or independent actions of an individual.
Plessey was a black man on a train headed south and was sitting in a white railcar. He refused to give up his seat claiming that by doing so he would be in violation of the 14th Amendment. The supreme court thought differently and came to the conclusion that it was legal to create “separate but equal” systems for blacks and whites.
· 1st Wave of Immigrants came from Western Europe and account for 2/3rds of total immigrants and came during the 1880s
· 2nd Wave of Immigrants came from Eastern Europe and came during the turn of the century (1900s)
The term middle class is still a new thing at this point. These are people who work jobs as farmers, shopkeepers, doctors. Normally the husband goes to work during the day while the wife stays home and cares for the kids. The presence of the wife at home is what defines a particular family as middle class.
Since white collar jobs were denied to African Americans, they worked blue collar jobs that the middle class was no longer working. The existence of this black middle class was primarily in the north and was defined more by their values than their income. Members of the black middle class prided themselves on their values, being sober and celibate.
Skilled workers were normally of the white, native born variety and usually organized themselves in to craft and trade unions. These skilled workers had more power in the companies as the strength of the union depends on the skill of the worker.
Vary from sharecroppers and tenant farmers to machine operators and domestic servants. Unskilled workers were normally immigrants and were not nearly as organized as the skilled workers. If they such workers were invivled in a union it would be an industrial union that valued strength in numbers.
The family wage ideology is based in the idea that a husband needs no make enough money to keep his wife from working a job outside of the household. The American Federation of Labor saw women in the workplace as the sign of a bad economy.
This was an area of big social contradictions as people wanted reform, but weren’t wiling to reform Jim Crow laws. There were so many segregation practices in both the south and the north that many black leaders were looking for away to rise above them.
Leader of the AFL, cigar maker.
City government, electoral reform, trust-busting, conservation, social justice, women’s rights, racial justice, modernizing rural life, scientific efficiency.
· White, middle class, born in the US, northern, urban.
· Motivated by genuine desire to help the poor.
· Thought that the solution to “make them more like us”
· Progressives wanted to reform city governments, but those same progressives were in institutions that were corrupt, like Tammany Hall.
· While women’s rights was definitely on the Progressive agenda, they were still being denied the right to vote.
· Racial justice was also on the agenda, but blacks and other ethnicities were still being segregated and discriminated against.
Progressives wanted to improve the environment through human action and understood that when you improve the environment that people live in, you improve their life. Environmentalists at this time believed that poverty was caused by the environment impoverished people were living in.
· Evangelical Protestantism
Movement established that urged churches and individuals to apply Christian ethics to social and economic problems. Part of an emerging liberal movement in American religion, emphasized moral and ethical lessons in the Bible, not the literal interpretations.
Photographer for the National Labor Committee that took infamous pictures of children working in factories. These photos were very influential and inspired a sense of moral outrage.
Headed by Clara Lemlich and supported by women in NY society (Frances Perkins, Anne Morgan and Alva Belmont. Strikes for better wages, hours.
Booker T. Washington worked to form the Tuskegee Institute to educate his peers in the practices of trade. Eventually Washington formed the Atlanta Compromise where he established that there needed to be a mutual respect between the races when it came to segregation and the economy.
Real big on anti-lynching as she was known for her research about how the reason for most lynching’s in America were not sufficient. She was also known for the articles she wrote of the topic about how rape was just an excuse for why a lot of black men were hung. She suggested that sex between white women and black men was often consensual.
· No/limited voting, grandfather clauses.
· REALLY BAD ECONOMY.
· Rejected Washington’s idea of a compromise.
· Black and white citizenship had to be put on equal levels.
· Necessary to educate a black elite.
· Niagara Movement: Advocating for an end to discrimination.
Leadership class of African Americans created by WEB DuBois. According to DuBois, only one in 10 black men would become leaders in the world and because of this strongly believed that blacks needed a classical education to enhance their standing in the world.
As outlined in Triangle, women were very involved in getting their right to vote and were very apparent in the workers strikes around the turn of the century. Women supported the progressive movement, and for those progressives looking to get elected, the votes of women were invaluable. In order for progressive ideals to be put on the ballot, women needed the right to vote.
o Ward bosses.
o Make sure that everybody within the ward was a happy camper.
o Machine would be rewarded in return.
NYC Democratic political machine that controlled the political culture of both the city and state throughout the first part of the 20th Century. Tammany was controlled by Charlie F. Murphy. Tammany was known for having ward bosses that would work to buy the vote of the immigrants in their part of the city. Many voters depended on bosses for their employment. Al Smith, Robert Wagner.
Belief that government should serve the public interest. Government needs to become more modern, rational and include trained professionals.
Commission formed to investigate the Triangle Fire and to improve factory conditions in NYC. Many Tammany men served (Smith, Wagner) as well as Samuel Gompers and Francis Perkins.
· Head of NY Consumers League
· Worked in NY State Legislature during Triangle Fire, worked on Factory Commission.
· Hobnobbed with Tammany (Triangle)
The idea exchange that occurred between the US, England and Gemany.
Anti-Imperialists feared that nations with empires would not preserve liberty at home. That pretty much undermines our ideals. Also, we’re annexing non whites, and that could be corrupting.
Annexing new territories means military security and is necessary for trade.
Progressive occupation. We aren’t occupying them for our own gain.
United States needs to be in charge of creating a good world.
· Trust buster.
· Regulatory government
· 1904: Roosevelt announces that the U.S. was going to be the ‘policemen” of the region
· Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. (No European affairs in sovereign countries)
· U.S. Has the right to intervene in the affairs of its neighbors.
Cubans wanted independence from Spain. Americans advocate intervention in the Cuban Independence, Sinking of the Maine Happens. Spain is also in control of the Philippines, so McKinley orders an attack there on the Spanish.
Chronic wrongdoing would cause the US to exercise a international police power in Latin America if Europeans tried to interfere there.
· Points 1-5: Call for open diplomacy, free trade, disarmament.
· Points 6-13: National Sovereignty. (Poland)
· Point 14: League of Nations.
To each country its own. WW1 broke up empires.
· In America: The government takes on new powers such as mobilizing an army, mobilizing resources and mobilizing public opinion.
· In the rest of the world: Empires are broken up, national sovereignty is enforced.
· World War I marked both the peak and the end of progressivism. When war was declared, the idea came about that we can spread this new notion of progressivism if we win the war. We can help shape the peace that matches Wilson’s progressive goals.
Sought to manipulate, not inform public opinon by fighting for the minds of men and for the conquest of their convictions. The CPI campaigned war propaganda in to many aspects of American life . Promoted fear, hatred and prejudice in the name of triumphant Americanism.
The Espionage Act: Heavy fines/20 years in prison for obstructing the war effort.
The Sedition Act: Severe penalties for speaking out against the draft, war production or any form of war criticism
Started the Anti-Radical Department in the Justice Department, man behind the Palmer raids on many groups suspected of subversion. Broke in to union halls, club rooms and private homes assaulting and arresting everyone in sight.
· Palmer’s celebrity loses its steam after May Day 1920 and people start to speak out about their lack of civil liberties and due process.
· During WW1, Russia suffers. War handled inaptly by czar.
· Food scarcity, lack of fuel.
· March 1917: Revolution breaks out, provisional government set up.
· November 1917: Lenin takes over government.
· Anti-Capitalism, Russia descends in to Civil war.
· Big effect on immigration as there is a newborn fear of losing national sovereignty, people were considered hyphenates were not loyal.
· Passions and fears aroused by the Red Scare end up having a long term impact.
· Intense patriotism survives, influences politics and policy and daily life.
Immigration Act of 1921
· Establishes quota system.
· “3% of each national group as it is represented in 1910”
Immigration Act of 1921
· “2% of each national group as it is represented in 1890”
Miss American pageant designed to appeal to the urban middle class and those with middle class aspirations.
· Originally held as a way to promote women’s suffrage and women’s’ rights.
People wanted to overthrow traditional Victorian social order and morality and had a strong desire to break down hierarchies of class, race and gender. There was a newfound emphasis on pleasure over restrain and repression and the new idea that knowledge comes from science, not religion.
Advertisers bought ad space in magazines like “True Story” where they demonstrated that buying their product will save them from the humiliation of not doing so or that they could be “saved” by a certain product. These types of advertisers engage the reader with a story so they will identify with the product of the story.
Companies used black “spokesservants” to promote products for white consumers. This made all Americans feel like they had a black servant working for them and thus gave them a feel for the “good ol’ days of slavery” THIS IS TERRIBLE.
The wonders of mass distribution give every American the chance to fit in with society. Everybody gets a servant, everybody can live a good life through buying mass produced products. Every home can afford this. Because of this form of mass distribution, every white family’s opportunity was not restricted by a hierarchy of class. When everybody can afford these products, all is well.
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