-concerned with changes in social solidarity- industrial revolution
-crime arises and denotes punishment, then reaffirms society's values
Durkheim defines it as a breakdown in social regulation
focus put on monetary success, with NO emphasis on the process.
-emphasized goals are widely shared by society, means of attaining them are not
-interested in why disadvantaged classes deviate more than other advantaged classes
Delinquent Subculture Theory
failures in school (disadvantaged kids usually fail in comparison to upper class kids in school)
so children enter a subculture with an alternative set of values (i.e.gangs)
Differential Opportunity Theory
SFT by Cloward & Olin
-individuals in all strata of society have same goals, but those in lower status have less means to succeed so they engage in crime and/or subculture
3 types of subcultures (differential opportunity theory)
-stable criminal: coordination between legitimate and illegitimate roles and sectors in the community (politicians, police, etc with illegal criminals) provides stable base for criminals to advance; perhaps less violent bc linked with some legitimate sectors
-Conflict: street crimes, gang, violence
-Retreatist: those who fail in legitimate society and criminal world, retreat to chemical crimes of alcohol and drugs
Social Control Theory
less bonded, more likely to engage in crime
1. attachment (to family and friends)
2. involvement (school)
3. belief (values)
4. commitment (to achieving goals)
Social Disorganization Theory
SFT- Shaw & McKay
-observed issues were reserved to inner city.
-crime as symptom of the neighborhood rather than the people
-neighborhoods as disorganized, residents unable to reach goals
-characteristics of these neighborhoods: poverty, ethnic heterogeneity lead to weakening of social bonds
break down or strain in social processes that produce conformity
-focus on institutions (family, school, church) and how they fail in their missions
-wide agreement, consensus on values
Symbolic Interactionist Theories
How individuals attach meaning and define behavior, determines how they will behave
individuals behave criminally do so bc they define the behavior as acceptable
-criminal behavior learned in isolation away from those who define the behavior as unfavorably
-A learned association with behavior
According to Sutherland's Differential Association Theory, why are there white collar criminals?
individuals become white collar criminals because they are immersed in a business culture that defines illegal business practices as acceptable.
According to Cressey's take on the Differential Association Theory, why do white collar criminals commit crimes?
before committing the crime, they'll redefine the crime to justify it.
"I was borrowing the money, not stealing it"
-Symbolic interactionist theory by Matza & Sykes
-law violators learn techniques that enable them to neutralize conventional values, and thus allows them to drift back and forth between criminal behavior and not.
5 techniques of neutralization theory
-denial of responsibility(blaming bad backround)
-denial of victim(victim had it coming)
-denial of injury(recasting theft as borrowing)
-condemnations of the condemners(police as discriminatory)
-appeal to higher loyalties(loyalty to friends/family as cause of behavior)
Labeling Theory(Social Reaction Theory)
SIT by Tannebaum & Lemert
-individuals become criminals because when significant members of society(teachers) label them as such they accept those labels as personal identity
Labeling theory: Primary vs Secondary deviance
developed by Lemert
-primary: initial act that evokes response
-secondary: problems that arise from societal response to initial act (much more consequential)
Labeling theory: achieved vs. ascribed characteristics?
achieved: earned (behavior)
ascribed: inherited (status)
Labeling theory: rule breaking behavior vs. status of being labeled a criminal
stealing vs. thief
Ethnic succession; what is it and how does it occur?
ethnic and racial groups as targets of neighborhood segregation only until they achieve economic parity. Then a new group in similar situation will move in. As seen in Goodfellas and the Godfather we see these Italian families moving to America to fulfill American dream. Prohibition offered opportunity for Italian Americans to obtain wealth.
-transfer of one wave of immigrants to the next
What is organized crime?
structured enterprise set up to continually supply consumers w/merchandise and services banned by criminal law, but demand exists.
3 characteristics of organized crime?
1. a public demand for goods and services that are illegal
2. an organization that supplies
3. corrupt public officials that protect individuals for their own profit or gain
Ianni: explain his case study of Lupollo family, history of Italian immigration, and role of prohibition
examined role of family in organized crime
-discovered functions similar to corporation
-secret societies and Mafia originate in Italy and then export to US
-prohibition offered way to make money, but when repealed they find new ways(gambling, drugs, prostitution)
Mafia: adjective vs. noun?
noun: a form of organized crime
adjective: used to describe cultural attitudes and values- respect and honor
How does structural functional theories explain organized crime?
an emphasis on Messner and Rosenfeld's american dream. These groups want economic prosperity, but are inherently disadvantaged as new immigrants. Therefore they resort to illegitimate means to obtain material success.
Cross Cultural theory: defines crime as deviations from 2 types of rules
1. conduct norms(enforced by society)
2. universal categories
issue--> universal categories not clearly defined (ex. murder defined differently across cultures)
bell shaped curve that explains the frequency and type of act
-middle is highest frequency
-from sinful illegal acts-----to saintly
-issues: Legal boundary can shift over time across time and place,disagreement about the boundary.Does not tell us why certain behavior are criminal or why different
groups get involved
Hagan's Pyramid Continuum Approach
deviance as continuous variable
3 measures of seriousness:
1. degree of social agreement about wrongfulness (total consensus vs. confusion)\
2. severity of societal response elicitied
3. societal evaluation of harm (how harmful is the behavior perceived to be.
Hagan's 4 types of devaiance
1. consensus: agreed to be serious by most members of society (high social agreement, response and harm)
2. conflict (low social agreement, varied societal response, varied social harm) ex. drug, gambling
3. social deviations (low social agreement, varied social response, more serious deviations, but not criminal) ex. juvenile delinquency
4. social diversions (acceptable variations in lifestyle, not harmful, may be considered by other societies as unacceptable) ex. mardi gras
Where would genocide be placed on Hagan's pyramid?
it would either be a consensus crime of conflict crime. I am leaning more towards conflict crime because the societal resopnse to genocide is often varied. Not necessarily because they are conflicted on whether the crime is harmful, but rather who should act? which country or officials should intervene. Although I do believe those that are informed of a genocide would overwhelming agree that the harm done by genocide is the most extreme harm one can do.
Marijuana different that other drugs on Hagan's pyramid?
Yes; most extreme drugs like heroin and meth would be classified as conflict crimes whereas marijuana would be considered more of a social deviation or diversion because there is a lack of social harm. I think in today's society most would agree smoking marijuana is an acceptable variation in lifestyle therefore it would be a "social diversion"
White collar crime
represents range of behaviors involving both individuals acting alone and within the context of a business structure
3 explanations of white collar (occupational crime)
1. greed or need: need to keep or improve one's job, support the family
2. corporate culture view: when organizations promote and cause white collar criminality by placing excessive demands on employees and maintaining a tolerant environment for devaince
3. Self control view:
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