A group of organs that work together in performing vital body functions.
Types of Tissue
-epithelial:linings -connective:matrix (structure) -muscle: movement -nervous: communication
Organelles ('Organs of cells')
structure with in cells carrying out specific functions
Plasma membrane and organelles maintain __________
Organelle Functions: Nucleus
often called the "brain" or "control center" of the cell, contains chromosomal DNA and a nucleolus
Organelle Functions: Mitochondrion
often called the 'powerhouse' of the cell, where respiration produces ATP, and energy-rich substance
Organelle Functions: Endoplasmic Reticulum
transports materials, and is the site of attachment for ribosomes, structures involved in building chains of amino acids
Organelle Functions: Golgi Complex
processes proteins and other molecules and directs them to where they need to go
Organelle Functions: Lysosome
has enzymes that degrade bacteria, old organelles, and other unwanted substances
Organelle Functions: Vesicle
contains substances that cell produces (like hormones, enzymes, and wast products) and secretes them at the plasma membrane.
Cellular Membrane Receptor Proteins
receive messages, such as hormones, from outside the cell and trigger chemical changes, inside the cell
Cellular Membrane: Marker Proteins
allow the immune system to recognize cells that 'belong' to the body and select foreign cells which may enter the body
Cellular Membrane: Transport Proteins
these proteins control the movement of substances through the cell membrane
maintaing a relatively stable internal environment
Basic functions of the Integumentay System
-protection -gripping -vitamin D synthesis -temperature regulation -sensation -sensory neurons: receive information
Changes in the Integumentary System over time
-puberty -drier skin, hair, and nails (reduce oil production) -hair and skin color changes -melanin reduces & replaced w/colorless air bubbles -wrinkles
Skin Disorders Integumentary System
-scratches & rashes (inflammation) -scar (collagen tightly fills space) -burns -first degree- epidermis only -second degree- epidermis & dermis -third degree- through to the hypodermis -increased MRSA infection
Three Layers of Integumentary System
-epidermis -dermis -hypodermis
large egg has adequate organeels and nutrients to support rapid mitosis (cell division) once fertilized by the sperm
small head contains the DNA, and whip-like tail projects the sperm through fluid as it seeks the egg
Skeletal Muscle cell
long tube-like cells have smaller myofibrils that contract and relax, altering the length of the cells and resulting in movement
Neuron (nerve cell)
numerous hair-like dendrites and a long axon connect cells together for intricate communication
cells can swell in size to stofe additional fat, the nucleus and other organelles are often pushed off to the side
Epidermis: function of the Squamous Epithelial Cell Layer
determines what is able to move into the bloodstream
Epidermis: functions of the Prickle Cell Layer
to strengthen the skin
Epidermis: functions of the Basal Cell Layer
replace dead or worn-out cells
Dermis: functions of the Dermal Loose Connective Tissue
structure and flexibility
Dermis: functions of the Blood Vessel
Dermis: function of the Neurons/Nerve Cell
receive nerve signals & transmit signals
Dermis: functions of the Hair Follicle
Dermis: functions of the Arrector Pili Muscle
contract in response to cold or fear
Dermis: functions of the Sweat Gland
secrete sweat to cool body
Dermis: functions of the Sebaceous Oil Gland
Hypodermis: functions of the Subcutaneous Fat
helps insulate the body
Hypodermis: functions of the Connective Fibrous Tissue Layer
provides structure and strength
Hypodermis: functions of the Muscle Tissue Layer
responsible for body movement, moves blood, wast, food through bodies organs.
lines body surfaces, both internal and external
joins the bodies tissues together
communication and response to stimulus
the framework on which the rest of the body is built
working with the skeleton, voluntary muscles enable the body to make precise movements; involuntary muscles provide essential power for the functioning of the respiratory, cardiovascular, and digestive systems.
brain controls all body movement
hormones are chemicals that act on specific tissues and affect the body's internal balance. The endocrine system initiates the changes that occur at puberty
basic function is to pump blood around the body. The system takes oxygenated blood to all body organs and tissues and can adapt swiftly to changes in demand. blood circulations also removes waste products from the body.
helps provide vital protection form infectious disease and to prevent malfunctions of internal tissues
the respiratory tract, working together with breathing muscles, carries air into and out of the lungs, where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged
this system stores food, digests it, breaking it down into substances that are absorbed by body cells, and eliminates wastes.
Male Urinary System
the formation of the urine by the kidneys eliminates wastes and excess fluids and helps to maintain the body's chemical balance
Female Urinary System
the process of urine formation and elimination in the female is the same as in the male. the urethra, which opens just in front of the vagina, is much shorter than in the male.
Male Reproductive system
the primary role of the reproductive system is to produce sperm and transport it to the female
nails are make of Keratin, a hard fibrous protein, which is also the main constituent of hair
hair cells develop in pits in the skin called follicles. the cell divided and eventually die, forming a hair shaft as the dead cells build up
Basic Functions of Skeletal System
support, protection, movement, mineral storage, source of blood cells
-osteoblasts: build bone -osteoclasts: break down bone -osteocytes: some osteoblasts cement themselves inside bone
-cartilage; chondrocytes-thick tissue building cells -over time cartilage gets replaced by bone (osteocytes) in a process called ossification
Bone Repair (skeletal disorder)
-blood clot: stops bledding -callus: fibroblasts form collagen across gap in bone -spongy bone- osteoblasts secrete minerals and cover collagen with bone -compact bone: osteocytes
Fractures (Skeletal Disorder)
-simple: not too far out of place -compound: break through skin
point of attachment between bones
bone density can decrease overtime -more likely for fractures -compact bone can become more spongy -repeated force increases bone density Muscle mass can also decrease over time -use it or lose it
where are new blood cells made?
in the bone marrow
what type of tissue is bone?
Cells that build bone are called...
cells that erode bone are called
What are some causes of Osteoporosis
heredity, relative calcium deficiency due to pregnancy, nursing or hunger, poor nutrition, alcoholism, nicotine addiction, estrogen deficiency in female professional athletes
How many bones make up the skull?
what are the three main types of vertebraes
-cervical -thoracic -lumbar
what are symptoms of osteoarthritits?
affects joints on one side of body, usually develops slowly over many years
what are symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis?
redness, warmth and swelling of joints, affects same joints on both sides of body, causes general feeling of sickness, fatigue, weight loss and fever, may develop suddenly w/in weeks or months, usually between age 25 & 50
how can thigh bones absorb impact?
ends have honeycomb structure, direct force of impact towards the stronger part of bone
how many years does it take to completely remodel your skeleton?
Three types of muscle tissues
-skeletal -smooth -cardiac
connect bone to bone -lateral collateral ligament -anterior cruciate ligament -medial collateral ligament
connect muscle to bone
Slow Twitch Fibers
slow to contract and fatigue -darker in color due to more mitochondria and myoglobin