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Biological Science with MasteringBiology (3rd Edition) (MasteringBiology Series)
Observations and questions. Curiosity and good observation skills.
How to approach a scientific problem.
Hypothesis: potential answers to questions.
Null Hypo: Where nothing happens, if proven you have to start over.
Alternative Hypo: When you prove the null and you have to come up with another answer.
Extermination: Testing the Hypothesis, based on predictions.
Who is the most badass call of duty player.
Ben Peterson;; bpp2f_mt // ps3
What is Scientific Theory
Scientific: Extensive experimental evidence(testing over and over with the same answer)
Society: Same as hypothesis ( potential answers)
What makes up Biology
Cell Theory: all living organisms are made of cells
Theory of Evolution: EXPLAINS the origin of life, DISPLAYS diversity of life.
What are the basic biology principles
-Respond to environment
-Growth and development
-Regulation and Homeostasis(stable environment)
3 types of atoms; their chargers and mass
Protons-positive-1 amu (atomic mass unit)
Number of Protons in the Nucleus of the atom
(aka: atomic mass unit "amu")
Number of protons and Neutrons in an atom
changing an atom or molecule into an ion, by adding or removing electrons.
Bond between atoms with opposite chargers that are attracted to each-other
Info on shells...
Shells are orbits of electrons that orbit an atom.
When a shell takes away an electron it is positive, when it receives an elections is is negative
Same number of protons but different numbers of Neutrons.
When an isotope is unstable its radioactive.
Determines the radioactivity amount of time it takes to be cut in half.
-adhesion(opps attract) and cohesion(likes attract)
-Surface Tension (water on top of wax paper)
Subunit: amino acid (20)
every amino acid has a central carbon.
Structure: Polypeptide Chain;amino group, carboxyl group, R-side chain
-Structure(membrane & wall proteins)
Structure: RNA & DNA
Function: Transfer genetic information from one generation to the next
Contains; phosphate group, 5- carbon sugars & nitrogenous base
They carry chemical energy in a cell (ATP)
-Sugars= ribose in RNA and deoxynribose in DNA
Backbone of a Nucleic Acid
made up of alternating sugars and phosphate molecules, bonded together in a long chain.
RNA vs. DNA
RNA=Cytosine, Uracil (U), Adenine, Guanine//C.A.U.G
Adenosine TriPhosphate. High energy molecule that stores energy. In the Cytoplasm.
Subunit: Sugar CH2O (carbon hydrogen and oxygen)
Function: energy generation/ identification
Also creates saccharides (Next Slide)
-2 Simple Sugars=Disaccharides
-Sucrose(table sugar)= glucose+fructose
-Polysaccharide=starch(used for energy storage in PLANT cells) potatoes
-Glycogen=Energy storage in animal cells(liver and muscles)
Most important organic plant compound.
-Structural Support in cell walls of plants.
-Found in many green plant cells, hydrophilic .
Can be broken down into its glucose units at high temperatures with concentrated acids.
Chitin= Cell wall for fungi and exoskeleton for insects and crustaceans
Peptidoglycan= Structural support of bacteria cell walls
small number of component sugars.
Structure: Animal cells
Function: cell to cell recognition in the plasma membrane in a animal cell
3 types of lipids (fats, g
Subunit: 3 carbons attached to a fatty acid( long carbon chain)
Function: Insulation, energy storage
Structure: Water, Hydrophilic head, Hydrophobic Tails. Repeat once again.
Structure: 17 Carbon atoms bonded together with 4 fused rings.
Structure: Glycerol, 2 fatty acids & phosphate
Function: cell membrane
Hydrophilic Polar head, Non polar membrane surrounds cell inside dissolves in water.
Unsaturated Fatty Acid
-Sat. lipids (butter) @ room temp=soft
-Sat. lipids with long hydrocarbon tails (beeswax)@ room temp= hard
-Unsat. lipids sunflower oil@ room temp =liquid
All living organisms are made of cells. All cells come from pre-existing cells. Smallest unit of life is a cell.
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic
Pro= lacks nucleus; 1 chromosome; circular; No compartments
Eu(animal)= has true nuclei; Many chromosomes; linear; compartments
-loosely packed sections of chromosomes
Houses DNA; operation and direction making
regulates cell activity and enzymes, manipulating/ replicating.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
communication network between cells.
Made of Ribosomes (Protein and RNA)
Function: Protein synthesis
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Found in plant & animal cells. Lacks protein and ribosomes.
communication without nucleus.
Function: Metabolized Carbohydrates
Found in Eukaryotic cells.
Faces inner part of Endo Ret. transide faces plasma membrane, outside.
Function: "package" puts membrane around cell that wants to leave.
-Vesicles generate membrane. made up of phrosholipid.
subunit within a cell.
-inside the membrane. surrounded by membrane
Single membrane: lysosome (smaller than a cell). Lyso= to break.
Lysosome breaks down and helps digest.
Structure: occupy a big amount of a cell(PLANT)
Function: Regulate water(keeps cell volume when it looses water)
Stores any unnecessary things at one time. Breaks down Chemicals
Double membrane cell.
Has own DNA
Function: generates energy
converts large organic modules and breaks them down into a goal of ATP.
Christae are the folds in a mitochondria.
Has own DNA
Plastids= bodies inside the cell
Function: Takes in light energy and converts it to chemical energy
Double membrane structure
compartment inside the chloroplast
Granum=stack of discs
Function: storage; usually starch; fats & oils.
PLANT CELL. euk.
Function: flavor fruits inside seeds to attract insects to get animals.
Chloroplast-converts light into chemical energy
Chromosome- Flavors and colors plant cells to attract animals
Function: support, movement & protection
Structure: made out of proteins
3 main parts;
-mircrofilaments: moves cells via contraction
-intermediate filaments: maintain cell shape by anchoring nucleus & other organelles
-microtubules: moves cilia and flagella
Animals DON'T have cell walls
Function: structure & protection
Plant, Fungi & bacteria have cell walls
*Principle of a plant cell wall is Cellulose (carb)
"glued together" with a pectin layer
Gylcan(exterior cell wall) folds euk. cells= carb
Bacteria= peptoglycan(mesh-like cell wall)
Arms for flagellum that help move it back and forth
There are 9 Doublets
Plasmamembrane surrounds the cell
every time the doublets try to move the flagellum it cost 1 ATP
-lamellipodium; cell surface movement processed by a membrane process that causes pseudopodia
Function: cytoplasm filled projections of the cell wall that motion for indigestion
Plasma Membrane- surrounds the cell body
Double Bond(Valence bond joins hydrogen bond)- Unsat. fatty acids bend hydrophobic Bonds.
bilayer- 2 sheets that surround the cell
embedded with proteins
-integral membrane- though out membrane
-peripheral membrane- sits on the outside membrane
-channel proteins- allows water togo through
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