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enzymatic degradation of carbs in which the final electron acceptor is an organic molecule.
Atp is synthesized by substrate-level phosphorlyation and o2 is not required.
1. fungi, protozoa, helminths, algae
1. round worm-nematodes
-microorganisms are present on non living things
-prevent contamination from unwanted organisms.
-now standard practice in lab and medical procedures.
-living cells can only arise from preexisting cells
-Rudolph Virchow 1858
-some forms of life could arise spontaneously from non-living matter
-"all living things are composed of cells"
-photosynthetic eukaryotes with wide variety of shapes and both sexual and asexual reproductive forms.
-move by pseudopods, cilia, flagella
-eukaryotes-nuclear membrane and organelles
-distinct nucleus containing cells genetic material (dna)
-surrounded by special envelope called nuclear membrane.
-saphrophytes (lives on dead decaying)
-live in hot sulfarous water, hot springs
-live in extremely salty environments
-toxins can be removed from underground wells, chemical spills toxic waste sites and oil spills.
-studies how genetic info is carried in molecules of dna and how dna directs the synthesis of proteins.
-study of immunity
-dates back in western culture to jenners first vaccine in 1796.
-study of fungi
-includes medical, agriculture and ecological branches
-study of bacteria
-began with van leeuwenhoeks firsts examination of tooth scrappings
-acellular not considered cells
-so small only seen with electron microscope
-core made up of one type of nucleic acid (either dna or rna)
-core is surrounded by protein coat
-viruses can reproduce by using cellular machinery of other organisms
-established a sequence of experimental steps for directly relating a specific microbe to a specific disease.
-derived from teh greek word: prenucleus
-chemicals produces naturally by bacteria and fungi to act against other microorganisms
-minute living things that individually are usually too small to be seen with teh naked eye
-Disease producing microbes
-relatively simple, single-celled organisms
-not enclosed in a special nuclear membrane
-cell walls lack peptidoglycan
-often found in extreme environments
*not known to cause disease in humans*
-when atoms interact they form this substance.
-Smallest component of a pure substance that exhibits physical and chemical properties of that substance
-cannont be subdivided into smaller substances w/o loosing its properties
-smallest unit of matter
-center of ever atom
-particles that move around the nucleus in patterns known as electronic configurations.
-an attraction between ions of opposite charge that holds them together to form a stable molecule
-gaining or loosing of electrons
-chemical bond formed by 2 atoms sharing 1 or more pairs of electrons
-stronger and more common in organisms than ionic bonds
-hydrogen atoms that is covalently bonded to one oxygen or nitrogen atom is attracted to another oxygen or nitrogen atom
-pathways of synthesis reactions in living organisms
-combining of sugar molecules to form proteins are 2 example of this.
-large and diverse group of organic compounds
-includes sugars and starches
-building blocks of proteins
-proteins that speed up biochemical reactions
-catalysts-participates in chemical reaction but does not change
-bind to reactants of teh reaction they catalyze in which it lowers the activation energy needed and speeds up a reaction
-2nd major group of organic compounds found in living matter
-composesd of: atoms of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen but lack the 2:1 ratio between hydrogen and oxygen atoms
-unique sequence in which the amino acids are linked together to form a polypeptide chain
-localized, repetitious twisting or folding of the polypeptide chain
-overall 3 dimensional structure of the polypeptide chain'
-non repetitive or predictable
-substance in which genes are made
-backbone of alternating deoxyribose sugar and phosphate groups
-base is uracil instead of deoxyribose
-measures the amound of H+ in a solution
-logrithmic scale, tenfold
-organic molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen and some contain sulfur
-part synthesis and decomosistion
Ex: AB + CD ---->AD +BC
-increase apparant size of an object
-difference between light and dark
-achieved by staining, light and changes in refractive index (light bending)
-light passes through specimen
-stains increase contrast
-+ charged "chromophore" stains cells
-negatively charged "chromophore" stains background
Phase contrast microscope
-light passes through phase plate, specimen, diffraction grating
-reinforcement and interference of light waves
-light slows down
-uv light induced fluorescence
-natural or by use of antibody-dye conjugates
-typically used for identity
-electron beams focused the magnets
-identify viruses (have unique distinct chrystalized structure)
-white light source, cells usually need to be stained
-specimen appear against a white background
-cant resolve smaller than 0.2 mm
-cells dont need to be stained, can observe living cells
- see internal structures
-amplify and differentiate, see an organism move
-substances that can absorb uv light give off light of a longer wavelength (lower engery)
-stain specimen that does not naturally fluoresce
-fluorescent antibody techniques allow rapid identity of microbes in a clinical specimen
- internal of bacterial cells
-beam of electrons, shortest length
-resolves smaller than 0.2 mm
-examine viruses or internal ultrastructure of cells
-stain with heavy metals
-10,000 to 100,000 mag and very expensive
-2 dimensional image
-thin sections of specimen
-3 dimensional image
-tungsten probe scans specimen surface
-shows atom arrangement, atoms magnified 100x
-diamond probe is forced onto surface
-shows molecular reactions (molecules in solution)
-cell wall differences
-bacteria grouped - and +
-stain binds to mycolic acid in cell walls of some bacteria
-sputum sample positive for acid fast bacteria presumptive diagnosis of tb
-useful in diagnosis
-detects spoores, cells are heate with stain
-malachite green (or other weakly binding dye)
-gram + rods
-dye binds to flagella, which cant be seen w/o staining
-number of arrangement of flagella is diagnostic
-bacteria, archaea, protozoa-algae
-unicellular, no nuclear membrane
-reproduce by binary fission
-nutrition: use organic compounds (degradation), photosynthesis, unique products: methane and sulfur
-recycling of elements-C,N,O,S,P
-antibiotics-natural occuring chemicals
-infectious disease-normal flora
-emerging diseases: bovine spongiform encephalopathy-prion, invasive group A streptococcus, E. coli, ebola, influeza H1N1
-heated broth produced organisms
-oxygen needed for life
-maggots do not arise from meat
-heated sealed broth did not produce organisms
-s-shaped flask-trapped dust in neck, organisms in dust cant reach broth
-Who and what was developed in 1864?
-disinfectancts, aseptic surgery
Koch's postulates-germ theory of disease
-pathogen must be present in every case
-pathogen can be isolated form host
-isolated pathogen caues disease in healthy individual
-cowpox vaccine prevetns smallpox
-arsenic derivative salvarsan treated syphilis
-accident mass produced in 1940's
-cells are made up of molecules
-cell metabolism-biochemical pathways
-microbial activities are result of chemical reactions
-H+ and one or more (-) ions
-OH- and one or more (+) ions
-(+) and (-) ions neither H+ or OH-
-held primarily by ionic bonds
-water is an unusual inorganic molecule
-can also be held by covalent
-contain H and C and are complex
-major elements C,H,O
-sugars and starches
-energy-C,H,O (1:2:1 ratio)
-storage, membranes, non-polar,C,H,O
-structure, enzymes, C,H,O,N and some S
-DNA RNA ATP
-genetic information, energy molecule, C,H,O,N,P
-what is the breakdown of complex organic molecules into simpler substances?
In metabolic diversity what is dependent upon energy source and dependent on oxidation-reduction reactions of inorganic or organic molecules for energy?
The Haloenzyme forms to what to transform it into a product?
What enzymatic inhibitor binds to another site on enzyme which is called alloristic site.
-binding to an allosteric site changes shape of active site so substrate cannont bind.
In cells what is called teh loss of hydrogen atoms?
Carrier molecules taht transport electrons resulting in a step wise release of energy that is used to for ATP
-Atp formed by oxidative phosphorylation
What is the conversion of pyruvic acid to organic product and does not require oxygen to do so?
-less energy produced
yogurt, sauerkraut, pickles
What is used in order for protein catabolic reactions to occur?
-extracellular enzymes result in amino acids
In this phase of microbe growth it can last for about an hour or several days, the cells are not dormant, and the population is undergoing period of intense metabolic activity involving ,in particular, the synthesis of enzymes adn various molecules.
adjustment including synthesis of macromolecules
In what microbe division of growth do the cell start to begin to divide and enter a period of growth or logarithmic increase. Cellular reproduction is most active during the period.
rapid exponential division of cells, most sensitive to antimicrobial agents
In what phase of microbe growth is the period of equalibruim?
-number of new cells equals number of dead cellc, nutrient depletion or waste accumulation chemostate
In this phase of microbe growth the population starts decreasing
number of death cells exceed number of living cells
Designed to suppress teh growth of unwanted bacteria and encourage the groth of the desired microbes
made up of nutrients incluin extracts from yeasts, meat or plants or digests of proteins from these and other sources
-requires energy, carbon, nitrogen and sulfure whichn are provided by protein.
-not in clinical setting
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